Que data de Christian

…É provável que esse maravilhoso anjo liderando as hostes celestiais em louvor, fosse Miguel, o arcanjo; essa ocasião foi posteriormente comemorada pela igreja primitiva como Miguelmas ('Miguel enviado'), em 29 de Setembro, a mesma data da Festa dos Tabernáculos.Seria no mínimo apropriado para Cristo ter nascido nessa data, porque foi em Seu nascimento que que 'o Verbo se fez carne e ... In other words as a Christian you cannot talk about your identity without talking about the action of God on you, the relationship of God with you, and the purpose of God for you. The biblical understanding of human self-identity is radically God-centered. Who am I? Who are you? You are a God-chosen one, a God-pitied one, a God-possessed one, a ... 'Le Big Data est plus une question de business que de technologie', Christian Poyau - 11/03. Le Salon du Big Data ouvre ses portes aujourd'hui à Paris. Des photos de suspect de Madeleine McCann, Christian Brueckner datant de deux décennies, prouvent que la police portugaise était au courant de son passé sordide, mais l’a toujours rejeté comme suspect. La série de photos a été prise en Algarve en juillet 1999 – huit ans avant que le jeune ne soit enlevé de Praia da Luz. Christian Dior: 3 years 2 months 20 days: Germany: 2020-09-21 12:57:05: Vichy: 2 years 9 months 20 days: France: 2020-09-21 12:57:02: Givenchy: 1 year 7 months 20 days: Ukraine: 2020-09-21 12:57:01: CHANEL: 1 year 5 months 20 days: United States: 2020-09-21 12:56:57: Christian Dior: 3 years 8 months 20 days: Thailand: 2020-09-21 12:56:55 ... Health Center Program Data. Each year HRSA Health Center Program Awardees and Look-Alikes are required to report a core set of information, including data on patient demographics, services provided, clinical indicators, utilization rates, costs, and revenues. View the most recent national program awardee data and national program look-alike data. Academia.edu is a place to share and follow research. Three Iranian Christian converts, who were facing a combined 35 years in prison because of their faith, have fled the country after a court rejected their appeal. The three converts, identified as Kvian Fallah-Mohammadi, Hadi Asgari and Amin Afshar-Naderi, were charged due to their connection to a December 2014 Christmas celebration and were ... DATA & CIVIL RIGHTS: A NEW ERA OF POLICING AND JUSTICE datacivilrights.org Courts and Predictive Algorithms DRAFT 10.27.2015 ANGÈLE CHRISTIN, ALEX ROSENBLAT, and DANAH BOYD ! Introduction1 Classical!descriptions!of!courts!and!trials!usually!emphasize!the!dignity,!slow!pace,!and!time8honored!legal! About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research.

Como assistir Defensa y Justicia x Delfín Futebol AO VIVO – Copa Libertadores 2020

2020.09.17 21:41 futebolstats Como assistir Defensa y Justicia x Delfín Futebol AO VIVO – Copa Libertadores 2020

O jogo envolvendo Defensa y Justicia x Delfín será realizado nesta quinta-feira (17). A disputa é válida pela 3ª rodada da fase de grupos da Copa Libertadores de 2020. A partida está programada para começar às 19h00 (horário de Brasília) e o duelo entre as duas equipes vai acontecer no Estádio Norberto “Tito” Tomaghello, localizado na cidade de Buenos Aires, na Argentina.
Clique AQUI e ganhe 30 dias de DAZN Grátis

Assistir Ao Vivo na TV:

A partida será transmitida no canal FOX Sports 2*. A narração e os comentários ficam por conta de Eugênio Leal e Hamilton Rodrigues.

Assistir Defensa y Justicia x Delfín Ao Vivo na Internet:

Através do FOX Play* você poderá assistir o jogo de hoje ao vivo pela internet. Portanto, acesse o site pelo seu notebook, celular, tablet ou outro dispositivo. Além disso, poderá assistir o jogo através do aplicativo oficial.
*Lembrando que para assistir a partida, e necessário ter uma assinatura ativa no canal.
Acompanhe todos os jogos e canais ao vivo aqui (teste grátis)
Veja mais!! –Acompanhe todos os jogos AO VIVO

Ficha Técnica:

Torcedômetro Qual é a maior torcida do Brasil?

Defensa y Justicia x Delfín – Histórico de Confrontos**

Esse será o primeiro confronto entre as equipes.
**Números do site oGol (contabiliza somente jogos oficiais, não inclui partidas amistosas)
Aqui no Futebol Stats você acompanha tudo sobre os campeonatos nacionais e os internacionais. Portanto, acesse nossa página para saber onde assistir os jogos de Futebol Ao Vivo, e saiba onde assistir todos os jogos de hoje. Assim também, não deixe de acessar a nossa página do Torcedômetro veja o ranking e vote em qual time tem a maior torcida do Brasil.
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2020.09.16 00:41 futebolstats Acompanhe Jorge Wilstermann x Athletico-PR Futebol Ao Vivo Online Conmebol TV – Libertadores

Acompanhe agora o jogo de hoje que envolve os times deJorge Wilstermann x Athletico-PRpela narração online com placar ao vivo em tempo real. O confronto é válido pela 3ª rodada da fase de grupos da Copa Libertadores de 2020. A partida está programada para começar às 19h15 (horário de Brasília) e o duelo entre as duas equipes vai acontecer no Estádio Félix Capriles, localizado na cidade de Cochabamba, na Bolívia.
Clique AQUI e ganhe 30 dias de DAZN Grátis

Acompanhe Jorge Wilstermann x Athletico-PR:

Acompanhe todos os jogos e canais ao vivo aqui (teste grátis)

Provável Escalação:

Jorge Wilstermann:Arnaldo Giménez; Esteban Orfano, Edward Zenteno, Ismael Banegas e Juan Pablo Aponte; Carlos Melgar, Leonel Justiniano e Cristian Chávez; Patricio Rodríguez; Serginho e Gilbert Álvarez.
Técnico: Cristian Leonel Díaz.
Athletico-PR:Santos; Jonathan, Felipe Aguilar, Pedro Henrique e Márcio Azevedo; Wellington, Erick e Christian; Geuvânio, Fabinho e Guilherme Bissoli.
Técnico: Eduardo Barros.
Veja mais!! –Acompanhe todos os jogos AO VIVO

Ficha Técnica:

Torcedômetro Qual é a maior torcida do Brasil?

Jorge Wilstermann x Athletico-PR – Histórico de Confrontos**

As duas equipes já se encontraram em 2 jogos oficiais na história. O Jorge Wilstermann já venceu a equipe adversária em 1 duelo. O Athletico-PR também conseguiu superar seu rival em 1 partida.
Além disso, a equipe do Jorge Wilstermann já marcou 3 gols neste duelo. Enquanto o time do Athletico-PR balançou as redes adversárias 6 vezes.
**Números do site oGol (contabiliza somente jogos oficiais, não inclui partidas amistosas)
Aqui no Futebol Stats você acompanha tudo sobre os campeonatos nacionais e os internacionais. Portanto, acesse nossa página para saber onde assistir os jogos de Futebol Ao Vivo, e saiba onde assistir todos os jogos de hoje. Assim também, não deixe de acessar a nossa página do Torcedômetro veja o ranking e vote em qual time tem a maior torcida do Brasil.
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2020.09.07 00:41 futebolstats Acompanhe Vasco x Athletico-PR Futebol Ao Vivo Online tempo real – Campeonato Brasileiro

Acompanhe agora o jogo de hoje que envolve os times deVasco x Athletico-PRpela narração online com placar ao vivo em tempo real. O confronto é válido pela 8ª rodada do Campeonato Brasileiro de 2020. A partida está programada para começar às 18h00 (horário de Brasília) e o duelo entre as equipes vai acontecer no Estádio de São Januário, localizado no Rio de Janeiro.
Clique AQUI e ganhe 30 dias de DAZN Grátis
Acompanhe todos os jogos e canais ao vivo aqui (teste grátis)

PROVÁVEL ESCALAÇÃO:

Vasco:Fernando Miguel; Pikachu, Castan, Miranda e Neto Borges; Andrey, Fellipe Bastos, Juninho e Benítez; Talles Magno e Cano.
Técnico: Ramon Menezes
Athletico-PR:Santos; Khellven, Lucas Halter, Pedro Henrique e Abner; Erick, Richard (Christian) e Léo Cittadini;Geuvânio, Pedrinho e Guilherme Bissoli.
Técnico: Eduardo Barros
Veja mais!! – Acompanhe todos os jogos AO VIVO

FICHA TÉCNICA:

Torcedômetro Qual é a maior torcida do Brasil?

Vasco x Athletico-PR – HISTÓRICO DE CONFRONTOS**

As duas equipes já se encontraram em 48 jogos oficiais na história. O Vasco já venceu a equipe adversária em 20 duelos. Já o Athletico-PR conseguiu superar seu rival em 15 partidas. Assim como ficaram no empate em 13 jogos disputados.
Além disso, a equipe do Vasco já marcou 75 gols neste duelo. Enquanto o time do Athletico-PR balançou as redes adversárias 79 vezes.
**Números do site oGol (somente jogos oficiais, não inclui partidas amistosas)
Aqui no Futebol Stats você acompanha tudo sobre os campeonatos nacionais e os internacionais. Portanto, acesse nossa página para saber onde assistir os jogos de Futebol Ao Vivo, e saiba onde assistir todos os jogos de hoje. Assim também, não deixe de acessar a nossa página do Torcedômetro veja o ranking e vote em qual time tem a maior torcida do Brasil.
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2020.08.30 21:41 futebolstats Como assistir Operário-PR x Brasil de Pelotas Futebol AO VIVO – Campeonato Brasileiro Série B 2020

O jogo envolvendo Operário-PR x Brasil de Pelotas será realizado neste domingo (30). A disputa é válida pela 6ª rodada do Campeonato Brasileiro Série B de 2020. A partida está programada para começar às 19h00 (horário de Brasília) e o duelo entre as equipes vai acontecer no Estádio Germano Krüger, localizado em Ponta Grossa, no Paraná.
Clique AQUI e ganhe 30 dias de DAZN Grátis

ASSISTIR AO VIVO NA TV:

A partida será transmitida no canal Premiere*. A narração será de Bruno Souza, enquanto os comentários serão de Conrado Santana.

ASSISTIR AO VIVO NA INTERNET:

Através do Premiere Play* você poderá assistir o jogo de hoje ao vivo pela internet. Portanto, acesse o site pelo seu notebook, celular, tablet ou outro dispositivo. Além disso, poderá assistir o jogo através do aplicativo oficial.
*Lembrando que para assistir a partida é necessário ter uma assinatura ativa no canal.
Acompanhe todos os jogos e canais ao vivo aqui (teste grátis)

PROVÁVEL ESCALAÇÃO:

Operário-PR:Rodrigo Viana; Sávio, Bonfim, Reniê e Julinho; Jiménez, Marcelo, Tomas Bastos e Thomaz; Douglas Coutinho e Schumacher (Roger).
Técnico: Gerson Gusmão
Brasil de Pelotas:Rafael Martins; Rodrigo Ferreira, Leandro Camilo, Héverton e Matheus Mendes; Sousa, Bruno Matias, Gegê e Bruno Santos; Danilo Gomes, e Gabriel Poveda.
Técnico: Hemerson Maria
Veja mais!! – Acompanhe todos os jogos AO VIVO

FICHA TÉCNICA:

Torcedômetro Qual é a maior torcida do Brasil?

Operário-PR x Brasil de Pelotas – HISTÓRICO DE CONFRONTOS**

As duas equipes já se encontraram em 3 jogos oficiais na história. O Operário-PR nunca venceu a equipe adversária. Já o Brasil de Pelotas conseguiu superar seu rival em 2 partidas. Assim como ficaram no empate em 1 jogo disputado.
Além disso, a equipe do Operário-PR já marcou 2 gols neste duelo. Enquanto o time do Brasil de Pelotas balançou as redes adversárias 4 vezes.
**Números do site oGol (somente jogos oficiais, não inclui partidas amistosas)
Aqui no Futebol Stats você acompanha tudo sobre os campeonatos nacionais e os internacionais. Portanto, acesse nossa página para saber onde assistir os jogos de Futebol Ao Vivo, e saiba onde assistir todos os jogos de hoje. Assim também, não deixe de acessar a nossa página do Torcedômetro veja o ranking e vote em qual time tem a maior torcida do Brasil.
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2020.06.10 14:32 wiklr Madeleine McCann Updates: State of the Case & Suspect Christian B.

Another update thread is available on Unresolved Mysteries
Thread will be updated throughout the day. Foreign news are Google translated, if you can provide a better translation please tag me. Thank you.
Sabado PJ prepares to search for Maddie's body in wells next to suspect's house in Algarve
The Judiciary Police is preparing to search for Maddie's body in wells next to the house that Christian Brueckner - suspected of missing the 3-year-old girl - had rented in the Algarve. According to the weekly Sol , the PJ has been making several inquiries in order to see if there is any possibility that the girl's body was deposited there.
From the house in question to the Ocean Club, where Maddie disappeared, it is only a few minutes by car. The house has several old wells and also has a path that leads directly to Praia da Luz, in the Algarve.
The news comes after it was announced that Kate and Gerry McCann, the British girl's parents, would know within days how Maddie died. Brueckner's lawyers say the German will not answer any questions about the case until there is evidence that he is involved. According to the weekly, several interrogations of witnesses in the case continue to be made.
Sueddeutsche No evidence that girl is still alive
In the case of little Maddie, who disappeared 13 years ago, the investigators remain with no evidence that the girl is still alive. There is no forensic evidence for this, so there remains "a certain hope," said the spokesman for the public prosecutor's office in Braunschweig, Hans Christian Wolters, on Monday. But that is a "purely theoretical possibility". He had previously said this to the British "Mirror", as the "Bild" newspaper reported: According to that he did not want to destroy hope. In Germany, murder investigations are common in such cases.
For parents Kate and Gerry McCann, the discussion means another torture, according to the British paper. But Wolters made it clear: "I cannot offer 100% forensic security." From the perspective of the investigators, however, it is clear that the girl was killed. There are so many indications that a crime is under investigation - in Germany that is murder.
Local.de German Media Probes Police Blunder in Madeleine McCann case
June 12, 2020 - Spiegel reported that the federal criminal police (BKA) had contacted police in Brunswick for more information about the suspect after receiving a confidential tip-off in October 2013.
But while calling the suspect in, police in their letter specified that it had to do with the "Madeleine McCann missing persons case" and "personal examination of Christian B".
The letter would have given Christian B. ample time to destroy any evidence, the report said, quoting experts who consider the police's actions to be a serious mistake.
This should not have happened and in no way corresponds to the usual procedure in such a sensitive case," an experienced police officer was quoted as saying.
Police would usually gather information first before approaching a suspect, the report said.
CNN German prosecutors: new evidence in Madeleine McCann case, but not enough
"It is actually like this — we have a specific suspect, we know the name, we have a picture, we know where he is at the moment, namely in custody in Germany, and we actually have findings that suggest that he is Madeleine McCann's murderer," he said. "At the moment, there is insufficient evidence to convict."
...
Friedrich Fuelscher, a lawyer representing the suspect, told CNN Thursday that investigators had not yet approached his client.
"On the advice of his defense council he is remaining silent about the accusations," Fuelscher said, adding that he was waiting to get access to the police file from state prosecutors, after which his legal team "will further evaluate."
The suspect has also been moved to another cell alone for his own safety, said Oliver Breuer, a spokesman at the justice ministry in the state of Schleswig-Holstein. The suspect "is highly aware of the international press interest," he said.
...
He also denied UK media reports that there was evidence suggesting McCann had been killed shortly after her abduction, even though that was most likely the case.
The New York Times Interviews with Residents of Praia da Luz
“People have got tired of listening to all the theories about Madeleine, and I think that it is understandable that nothing feels very new after 13 years” of various police leads turning out to be cold, said Hugo Pereira, the mayor of the municipality that includes Praia da Luz.
“There’s also the feeling that anybody who could have possibly been interrogated has already said all that could be said,” he added.
Daily Mail Family of Christian Brueckner's teenage girlfriend have been quizzed by German police
Madeleline McCann suspect Christian Brueckner abused his teenage girlfriend Nakscije Miftari and put her family through hell, her sister has revealed
Azra Miftari recalled how Brueckner, who had an 18-month relationship with Nakscije in 2014, was repeatedly cruel: 'He hit my sister. It was horrible for her
CB [Christian Brueckner], who is a suspect in the Madeleine McCann case, has moved into solitary confinement.
'We want to prevent him being attacked by other prisoners in Kiel Prison. He will only be allowed out of the cell accompanied by guards. He will be kept in the solitary confinement cell until further notice. The solitary confinement cells are in a separate wing of the prison."
He has not been charged over Madeleine's disappearance in 2007 and cannot be held for it.
Prosecutors admitted they didn't have enough evidence to question him.
German lawyers are now desperately trying to find grounds to charge him with the Maddie case to avoid a situation in which he could be freed again.
Sueddeutsch Flensburg Justice: Are not involved in the Maddie case
According to the Flensburg public prosecutor, it was never involved in the case of the British girl Maddie McCann, who disappeared in Portugal in 2007. This was emphasized by the Chief Prosecutor Ulrike Stahlmann-Liebelt and Schleswig-Holstein's Minister of Justice Claus Christian Claussen (CDU) on Wednesday in Kiel's interior and legal committee.
... "We have nothing to do with the Maddie investigation," said the lawyer.
The defenders of the suspect in the Maddie case have resigned their mandate
This was reported to the responsible investigative authority, the lawyers Jan-Christian Hochmann and David Volke informed the German Press Agency.
... [Christian B is] now represented by Kiel lawyer Friedrich Fülscher and Hamburg lawyer Johann Schwenn. Fülscher told RTL / n-tv that his client would like to provide "currently no information on the matter". "We ask for your understanding that we, as defenders, do not provide any information either." Schwenn confirmed the dpa the joint mandate with colleague Fülscher. "We'll keep looking after the files," he said.
RTL.de Christian B's Lawyer Interview
(June 10, 2020) - When asked how his client was doing, Fülscher replied: "How should a person who is isolated in a correctional facility and who accuses half the world's population of the worst crimes? ", The lawyer announced, "under civil or criminal law" against false suspicions want to proceed with his client.
PORTUGUESE NEWS
Expresso MP makes survey of cases involving suspect in disappearance
(10.06.2020 at 14h07) ...
The Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Faro announced today that it is carrying out a survey of the processes that relate the German citizen suspected of disappearing Madeleine McCann, with other cases registered in the region.
"With a view to clarifying the matter, the Public Prosecutor's Office (MP) has been carrying out a survey" of processes that took place in the Faro district, and that relate the German citizen suspected of intervention in the disappearance of Madeleine McCann, writes the Attorney on its website.
The MP clarifies that according to "the elements available so far", it was found that the now suspect was convicted of disobedience and theft in another process.
In addition to these two cases, five requests for international judicial cooperation were also found in which the name of that German citizen is mentioned.
According to the MP, one of the requests for international cooperation is related to a lawsuit against strangers and that was closed in February 2006, "and four concern the process in which the disappearance of Madeleine McCann is being investigated".
The so-called 'Maddie' process was initially closed in 2008, with the MP determined in 2013 to reopen it, as new elements appeared that justified the continuation of the investigation, the Prosecutor's Office said.
"After the reopening of the process, no defendants were constituted, continuing the investigations with the carrying out of diligences that are useful for the investigation of the facts and the identification and accountability of the respective authors", advances the MP.
...
According to the Faro District Attorney's Office, the investigation has been carried out in close cooperation with the German and English judicial authorities, under the terms defined in the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters and in Directive 2014/41 / EU of the Parliament and the European Council.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
GERMAN NEWS
Sueddeutsche Parliament discusses judicial behavior against suspects
(June 10, 2020) - Schleswig-Holstein's Minister of Justice Claus Christian Claussen (CDU) and representatives of the Flensburg public prosecutor's office will answer questions to the Interior and Legal Committee in Kiel (2 p.m.).
The question is whether the man was temporarily released for about four weeks in 2018 due to a legal mishap by the Flensburg public prosecutor. It is said that the deadline was missed so that the man was released from custody at the time for child abuse. Back then, it wasn't about Maddie, it was about another case.
...
The prison sentence in Kiel for the drug offense is 21 months. The convict served 14 months, two thirds. A probation for parole is underway. A corresponding application has recently been received by the district court in Kiel, said a spokesman for the district court. Comments from the Flensburg Public Prosecutor and the Kiel Correctional Facility had been requested. There are no specific deadlines for when they should be there.
The spokeswoman for the public prosecutor's office in Flensburg said that the files from Braunschweig were retrieved on Monday, where the convict had first applied for parole. Braunschweig, however, rightly declared that it was not responsible.
But the suspect in the Maddie case would probably not be released. Because against the man there is a Braunschweig judgment of seven years in the first instance. In this case it is about rape of a 72-year-old. The verdict is not yet legally binding.
ZDF Video BKA is working on information
(June 10, 2020) - In the case of the British girl Madeleine McCann, who disappeared 13 years ago, hundreds of new reports have been received by the BKA since the middle of last week. ZDF correspondent Andreas Stamm on the current status of the investigation.
[Video needs English translation]
Die Welt Video These NASA images could convict perpetrator
(June 10, 2020 ) - Description: The BKA has now received hundreds of new information about the case of the girl Madeleine McCann, who disappeared 13 years ago. NASA recordings confirm the suspicion that a 43-year-old German may have kidnapped the girl.
[Video needs English translation]
Die Welt BKA is processing hundreds of references in the Maddie case
(June 8, 2020 ) - The court must decide ex officio on early release after serving two thirds of the sentence there. «The relevant deadline was yesterday. The competent court has not yet ruled, »said Wolters.
The British police had announced on Sunday that about 400 new reports had been received in the Maddie case by phone or email. Unlike the German investigators, Scotland Yard continues to assume that there is a missing person after 13 years. "There is no definitive evidence that Madeleine is still alive or dead," said a police spokesman in London.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
AP Interview with Hans Christian Wolters
English Transcript:
"The accused lived in Portugal between 1995 and 2007, near Praia da Luz and Lagos. During this time he had several occasional jobs, including in the catering industry. We also have evidence that he made his living by committing burglary thefts in hotel complexes and holiday apartments and also by drug trafficking. We hope to find British tourists who have made sightings during this period, who may also recognise photographs of the accused's vehicles and the accused's homes. These photos can be found on the website of the German Federal Criminal Police Office. There the information is also available in English. Anyone who can say anything about this topic, who recognizes the vehicles that are pictured there, who recognizes the houses, who might also know the personal data of this person, is asked to help us. Perhaps this person has seen something in his or her holiday resort in Portugal that can help us considerably."
"We do not have the decisive evidence yet. We do not have the body of Madeleine McCann. But we assume she is dead. But at the moment we cannot substantiate our suspicions in such a way that we could, for example, also apply for an arrest warrant against him here in Germany for the murder of Madeleine McCann. And we also have too little evidence at the moment to be able to file an indictment in court."
"Because according to our indications the girl is dead. We have no evidence that the girl could still be alive. All the evidence that we have, but which I cannot give you, indicates that the girl is indeed dead."
Sky News Video German authorities say they have 'some evidence' that Madeleine McCann is dead
Transcript:
Interviewer: For Madeleine McCann's parents there's still hope she's still alive. The prosecutor Hans Christian Wolters says he's leading a murder investigation. Madeleine's parents still believe she's still alive, why do you call it a murder investigation?
Wolters: There's so many facts that she's dead. There's no opportunity that she's still living.
Interviewer: The case against Christian B is circumstantial. He's a convicted child sex abuser. He lived along Portugal's Algarve cooast for 12 years. His last home was Praia de Luz where Madeleine vanished. His phone was used outside McCann appartment the night she disappeared.
Wolters: The amnesty lie here from Madeleine McCann begin about an austere orders. [Translated] We don't have Madeleine McCann's body but we expect that she's dead. We have some evidence that the suspect has done the deed but we need more information from the people, places he has lived so we can target this place especially and search there for Madeleine.
Interviewer: Forensic examination of the suspect's camper van is thought to have found no trace of Madeleine's DNA and none in his Jaguar car which was also seized.
Wolters: [Translated] We hope that some British tourist can help us to find the murder of Madeleine McCann.
Sky News: Like their Scotland yard colleagues, German prosecutors have received hundreds of calls after last week's appeals for help.
Wolters: [Translated] We think the suspect has committed more crimes possibly against British people and Irish and Americans. We think there are more victims of sexual crimes.
Interviewer: The suspect is in Jail in Germany. He too is awaiting developments in the case. Detectives haven't yet questioned him about Madeleine.
The Guardian Some evidence' Madeleine McCann is dead, say German authorities
(June 9, 2020 ) - Wolters told Sky News: “The hard evidence we don’t have, we don’t have the crucial evidence of Madeleine McCann’s body. We expect that she is dead, but we don’t have enough evidence that we can get a warrant for our suspect in Germany for the murder of Madeleine McCann.
At the moment, we also don’t have enough proof for a trial at court, but we have some evidence that the suspect has done the deed. That’s why we need more information from people, especially places he has lived, so we can target these places especially and search there for Madeleine.
BBC News New inquiry 'could be dropped' without clues from public
(June 9, 2020 ) - Hans Christian Wolters, a prosecutor in the northern city of Braunschweig - where detectives are leading the investigation - told the BBC: "We have evidence against the accused which leads us to believe that he really killed Madeleine but this evidence is not strong enough at the moment to take him to court."
The evidence is "strong enough to say that the girl is dead and strong enough to accuse a specific individual of murder - that strong," he said.
However he added: "One has to be honest and remain open to the possibility that our investigation could end without a charge, that it ends like the others have.
"We are optimistic it will be different for us but for that we need more information."
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2019.12.25 19:41 YourMayansMayVanish Bate-papo Janela de Transferência Início da Temporada - 2020

Notícias sobre especulações da janela de janeiro 2020

Entradas:
Renovações/Trocas/Volta de empréstimo:
Saídas:
*Matérias já confirmadas estão tachadas.

Contratações

 
Jogador Pos. Time Tipo
Pedro Rocha A Transferência por empréstimo até o final de 2020 a custo zero, com pagamento integral dos salários.
Gustavo Henrique Z Transferência em definitivo até o final de 2023 a custo zero.
Michael A Transferência em definitivo até o final de 2024, custo de 7,5 milhões de euros por 80% dos direitos econômicos.
Thiago Maia V Transferência por empréstimo até o final de 2020, a custo zero e com valor dos direitos econômicos fixados.
Pedro A Transferência por empréstimo até o final de 2020, por 1 milhão de euros e com valor dos direitos econômicos fixados.
Leo Pereira Z Transferência em definitivo até o final de 2024, custo de 7 milhões de euros por 100% dos direitos econômicos.
 
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2019.07.21 21:43 saludybelleza Cómo medir el pene: técnicas médicas comprobadas.

Como medir el pene: técnicas médicas comprobadas.

Como medir el pene

Te has preguntado alguna vez si existe un método acerca de como medir el pene?
La dimensión del miembro sexual masculino ha sido siempre un motivo de preocupación entre los hombres alrededor del mundo. Aprende como medir el pene ya mismo y quítate las dudas!
hoy en dia se cree cree que mayor tamaño de pene equivale a mayor placer sexual.
Sin embargo, la longitud y el grosor del pene no han sido apreciados de la misma manera en la historia de la humanidad.
En la antigua Grecia, se apreciaba más a hombres con penes pequeños debido a que se creía que poseían mayor capacidad intelectual, creativa y artística.
Por el contrario, a los brutos, torpes o inferiores física y mentalmentte se les representaba con enormes falos desproporcionados anatómicamente.
En los tiempos modernos, se instauró el pensamiento global que la satisfacción sexual tiene una relación directamente proporcional con el tamaño de los órganos sexuales.
Se utiliza el término “órganos sexuales” ya que no solo importa el tamaño del pene del hombre, sino también los pechos, los glúteos y vulva en las mujeres.

Mientras más grande, mejor. ¿Cuán cierto es esto?

La mayoría de los estudios clínicos realizados no han encontrado una relación directa entre las dimensiones del miembro masculino y el orgasmo o placer sexual en ambos miembros de la pareja.
De hecho, algunos reportes confirman que muchas mujeres encuentran dolorosas las relaciones sexuales con hombres con penes muy grandes.
Sin embargo esto no modifica las creencias de que lo ideal es tener un gran pene, pero ¿realmente se sabe si un pene tiene el tamaño adecuado? ¿Cómo podemos medir las verdaderas dimensiones del falo?
El surgimiento del internet y las redes sociales nos han proporcionado a la comunidad en general una fuente ilimitada de información acerca de cualquier tópico, sobre todo en temas sexuales.
Lamentablemente, el soporte científico en la gran mayoría de estas publicaciones es nulo. Son muy pocos los blogs, artículos o vídeos que obtienen sus datos de investigaciones sensatas, provenientes de boletines indexados o de libros serios.
Esa realidad es la que vamos a cambiar en tamañodelpene.com
Al finaldel artículo podrán leer referencias concretas, obtenidas a través de pruebas clínicas formales y extraídas de las más reconocidas revistas de sexualidad a nivel mundial.

¿Cómo medir el pene?

Esta una pregunta que raya en lo polémico cuenta con absoluta seriedad.
Desde el punto de vista urológico, el tamaño del pene es un elemento clínico fundamental en la evaluación total de un paciente, tanto pediátrico como adulto.
Existen técnicas descritas para medir el pene desde los primeros días de vida hasta la adultez.
Si bien medir el tamaño del pene no genera demasiado interés para el adulto, el procedimiento de medir el pene en bebes y niños aporta mucha información acerca de la salud de los mismos y permite hacer diagnósticos precoces de cualquier anormalidad.

Toma de medida del amaño del pene dentro del útero materno

De hecho, Perlitz Yuri y colaboradores (Prenatal Diagnosis, 2011) realizaron un estudio en el cual medían el tamaño del pene dentro del útero materno.
Dicha medición se llevaba a cabo a través de una ecografía materna transvaginal realizada entre las semanas 14 y 35 de la gestación, utilizando como referencias el borde proximal de los cuerpos cavernosos y la punta del glande.
El estudio concluyó que estas medidas pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico precoz de malformaciones genitales, incluyendo el micropene (link a articulo interno: que es un micropene?) o escaso desarrollo dimensional, pudiendo así establecerse el tratamiento hormonal temprano y evitar futuras complicaciones. (1)

Medida del tamaño del pene en individuos ya nacidos

Ahora bien, cuando se desea medir el tamaño del pene en individuos ya nacidos, se describen algunas técnicas para ello.
Tomova Analia y colaboradores (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010) publicaron un enorme estudio llevado a cabo en más de 6000 niños y adolescentes de Bulgaria.
En el estudio describen el desarrollo de los genitales externos en dichos grupos de la misma edad.
Para ello, además de medir los parámetros antropométricos clásicos como la talla y el peso, se midió el tamaño del pene y el volumen testicular.
La longitud del pene fue medida en estado de flacidez utilizando una cinta métrica rígida desde la unión de la piel entre el pene y el pubis hasta la punta del glande, excluyendo el tejido redundante del prepucio.
Es importante destacar que esta medida se realiza ejerciendo la máxima extensión no dolorosa posible del órgano sexual.
La circunferencia del pene se midió en la base del mismo con una cinta métrica flexible.
El volumen de los testículos se calculó a través de un orquidómetro de Parder. (2)
Esta técnica de medida parece ser la más aceptada en el mundo científico.
Gabrich Pedro y colaboradores ya lo habían descrito en su estudio sobre niños y adolescentes de Brasil (Jornal de Pediatria, 2007), en el cual utilizaron una regla rígida graduada en milímetros para medir la longitud del pene y un paquímetro para el diámetro.
Al igual que en el estudio de Tomova, la longitud del pene se midió en estado de flacidez con la máxima tracción posible sin causar dolor.
En cambio, la circunferencia se midió en la mitad del pene y no en la base. (3)
También se describen en este estudio varias mediciones de la longitud, las cuales son de suma importancia en los resultados finales, especialmente cuando se extrapolan al adulto.
Son cuatro las medidas que se analizaron, a saber:
Longitud flácida aparente (LFA o AFL): desde la unión de la piel del pene con la del pubis hasta la punta del pene.
Longitud flácida real (LFR o RFL): desde la unión de la piel del pene con la del pubis, deprimiendo la grasa local, hasta el extremo final del glande.
Longitud flácida aparente con máxima extensión (LFA max o AFL max): Desde la unión de la piel del pene con la del pubis hasta la punta del pene, ejerciendo la mayor extensión posible del mismo sin causar dolor.
Longitud flácida real con máxima extensión (LFR max o RFL max): Desde la unión de la piel del pene con la del pubis, deprimiendo la grasa local, hasta el extremo distal del glande, ejerciendo la mayor extensión posible del órgano sexual sin causar dolor.
Hasta el momento hemos descrito las técnicas de medición de las dimensiones del pene en estado de flacidez.
Esta medida es muy importante porque sirve como un buen predictor para determinar el tamaño final en estado de erección.
De hecho, Veale David y colaboradores (BJU Int, 2015) publicaron un ensayo en el cual desarrollan nomogramas amplios relacionando la longitud y la circunferencia del pene, tanto en flacidez como en erección, después de analizar a más de 15000 hombres británicos.
Las conclusiones de dicho estudio reportan que existe una correlación consistente, aunque débil, entre la longitud del pene flácido estirado y la longitud del pene en plena erección. (4)
Ya algunos años atrás, Chen J. y su equipo (International Journal of Impotence Research, 2000) fijaron la relación entre el tamaño del pene en flacidez y en erección, estableciendo pautas sobre como medir el pene según el siguiente esquema.
Se acostó al paciente en una camilla ubicada en un cuarto privado. Una vez alcanzada la máxima erección se utilizó una regla calibrada para medir la longitud y un cáliper para medir la circunferencia.
La longitud se midió dorsalmente (por donde transcurre la vena central del pene) apoyando la regla en el hueso del pubis, alcanzando el punto del meato uretral.
Como en todos los casos anteriores, se aplicó una extensión gentil del pene tomándolo por el glande hasta que el paciente refería cierta molestia. (5)
Uno de los estudios más recientes e interesantes acerca de las técnicas sobre como medir el pene lo llevo a cabo Davoudzadeh y colaboradores (Sexual Medicine Reviews, 2018), quienes no solo revisaron mucha de la literatura disponible al respecto, sino que realizaron sus propias mediciones.
El método de medición fue muy parecido al realizado en los ensayos previos, la diferencia más importante radica en que las medidas de longitud y circunferencia se llevaron a cabo con una cinta flexible en vez de una regla rígida calibrada. (6)
Podemos ver que existe una cantidad interesante de trabajos de investigación en los que se realizan mediciones del pene.
Ahora bien, ¿es posible realizar una adecuada medición del pene en casa?
Son pocos los hombres que están dispuestos a visitar al urólogo o cualquier otro médico para que le tomen las medidas a su miembro viril.
Es por ello que muchos hombre desean aprender cómo medir el tamaño del pene en la comodidad de sus hogares.

¿Qué dice la ciencia al respecto?

Herbenick D. y su equipo de trabajo (J Sex Med, 2014) publicaron un estudio de 1661 hombres americanos sexualmente activos quienes se midieron personalmente sus penes en plena erección, sin haber recibido entrenamiento previo para ello.
La idea inicial del ensayo era determinar la talla adecuada de preservativos que estos hombres necesitarían, aunque la data se aprovechó para evaluar las diferentes técnicas de medición del pene.
Los investigadores concluyeron en que las dimensiones reportadas eran consistentes con otras realizadas en ambientes controlados por personal calificado.
El más interesante de los resultados fue que la manera de alcanzar la erección en casa no es igual a la utilizada en un laboratorio y es probable que esto afecte las dimensiones finales del pene.
Es lógico si pensamos que la excitación lograda en casa, utilizando cualquier método al alcance y sin presiones externas, debe ser más eficiente para lograr una erección enérgica que la obtenida en un sitio de experimentación sabiéndose observado y controlado. (7)
Otro interesante estudio realizado en la comunidad homosexual y bisexual de los Estados Unidos se basó en mediciones realizadas por los propios participantes.
Grov Christian y colaboradores (Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2012) determinaron que las medidas fueron demasiado variables tanto en longitud como en circunferencia, aunque muchos confesaron no haber alcanzado erecciones potentes debido a la falta de excitación.
La mayor parte de los hombres que formaron parte del estudio y consiguieron medidas adecuadas lo hicieron en medio de un momento de excitación intensa e incluso durante la relación sexual. (8)

Recomendaciones: como medir el pene

Analizando los datos provistos por los distintos trabajos de investigación, podemos aportar las siguientes recomendaciones para el hombre que desee saber cuánto mide su pene:
Pese al bombardeo mediático referente a como medir el pene y su tamaño, el 90% de los hombres tiene un falo de tamaño normal.
Si tienes dificultades para alcanzar erecciones efectivas o realmente tienes un pene cuyas dimensiones están por debajo de la media, conversa con tu pareja y acude al médico.
Puedes a su vez probar determinados geles que ayudan lalubricación del pene, haciendo más placentera el acto sexual o la masturbación.
Referencias
Perlitz Y y colaboradores (2011). Prenatal sonographic evaluation of the penile length. Prenatal Diagnosis. 2011; 31(13): 1283-1285, doi:10.1002/pd.2885.
Tomova A y colaboradores (2010). Growth and Development of Male External Genitalia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164(12): 1152-1157.
Gabrich PN y colaboradores (2007). Penile anthropometry in Brazilian children and adolescents. Jornal de Pediatria. 2007; 83(5): 441-446.
Veale D y colaboradores (2014). Am I normal? A systematic review and construction of nomograms for flaccid and erect penis length and circumference in up to 15,521 men. BJU International. 2014; 115: 978-986, doi:10.1111/bju.13010.
Chen J y colaboradores (2000). Predicting penile size during erection. International Journal of Impotence Research. 2000; 12: 328-333.
Davoudzadeh EP y colaboradores (2018). Penile Length: Measurement Technique and Applications. Sexual Medicine reviews. 2018; 6(2): 261-271.
Herbenick Debby y colaboradores (2014). Erectile Penile Length and Circumference Dimensions of 1,661 Sexually Active Men in the United States. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 11(1): 93-101, doi:10.1111/jsm.12244.
Grov C, Wells BE y Parsons JT (2012). Self-reported Penis Size and Experiences with Condoms Among Gay and Bisexual Men. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2012; 42(2): 313-322, doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9952-4
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2018.10.08 22:02 Ainsoph777 The CIA and the Vatican’s Intelligence Apparatus, By Martin A. Lee July/August 1983 Issue Mother Jones

source : http://churchandstate.org.uk/2013/04/cia-and-the-vaticans-intelligence-apparatus/
The article goes into the comment section a bit, there wasn't enough space to fit it all in the text slot for a reddit post

: "One day in July 1944, as the Second World War raged throughout Europe, General William “Wild Bill” Donovan was ushered into an ornate chamber in Vatican City for an audience with Pope Pius XII. Donovan bowed his head reverently as the pontiff intoned a ceremonial prayer in Latin and decorated him with the Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Sylvester, the oldest and most prestigious of papal knighthoods. This award has been given to only 100 other men in history, who “by feat of arms, or writings, or outstanding deeds, have spread the Faith, and have safeguarded and championed the Church.”
Although a papal citation of this sort rarely, if ever, states why a person is inducted into the “Golden Militia,” there can be no doubt that Donovan earned his knighthood by virtue of the services he rendered to the Catholic hierarchy in World War II, during which he served as chief of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the wartime predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). In 1941, the year before the OSS was officially constituted, Donovan forged a close alliance with Father Felix Morlion, founder of a European Catholic intelligence service known as Pro Deo. When the Germans overran western Europe, Donovan helped Morlion move his base of operations from Lisbon to New York. From then on, Pro Deo was financed by Donovan, who believed that such an expenditure would result in valuable insight into the secret affairs of the Vatican, then a neutral enclave in the midst of fascist Rome. When the Allies liberated Rome in 1944, Morlion re-established his spy network in the Vatican; from there he helped the OSS obtain confidential reports provided by apostolic delegates in the Far East, which included information about strategic bombing targets in Japan.
Pope Pius’ decoration of Wild Bill Donovan marked the beginning of a long-standing, intimate relationship between the Vatican and U.S. intelligence that continues to the present day. For centuries the Vatican has been a prime target of foreign espionage. One of the world’s greatest repositories of raw intelligence, it is a spy’s gold mine. Ecclesiastical, political and economic information filters in every day from thousands of priests, bishops and papal nuncios, who report regularly from every corner of the globe to the Office of the Papal Secretariat. So rich was this source of data that shortly after the war, the CIA created a special unit in its counterintelligence section to tap it and monitor developments within the Holy See.
But the CIA’s interest in the Catholic church is not limited to intelligence gathering. The Vatican, with its immense wealth and political influence, has in recent years become a key force in global politics, particularly with Catholicism playing such a pivotal role in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Unbeknownst to most Catholics, the Vatican, which carefully maintains an apolitical image, not only has a foreign office and a diplomatic corps, but also has a foreign policy. And with Polish Communists embracing Catholicism and Latin American Catholics embracing communism, the U.S. government and particularly the CIA have recently taken a much greater interest in Vatican foreign policy. A year-long Mother Jones investigation has revealed a number of unlikely channels — both overt and covert — which the agency uses to bring its influence to bear upon that policy.
Since World War II, the CIA has:
It was in this last regard that the CIA supported factions within the Catholic church that were instrumental in promoting and electing the current pope, John Paul II, whose Polish nationalism and anti-Communist credentials, they thought, would make him a perfect vehicle for U.S. foreign policy. John Paul’s recent trip to Nicaragua could not have been matched by any American’s for the contribution it made to President Reagan’s Central American initiative. And hopes are high in Washington, D.C., that the pope’s forth-coming trip to Poland, where 90 percent of the people are Catholic, will respark the anti-Soviet uprising so vital to Reagan’s plans for Eastern Europe.

Dark Knight of the Soul
Every year in late June a bizarre ritual takes place in Rome. Men and women fly in from all over the world to participate in a ceremony that has been performed for centuries. Next year, the assembled might find CIA director William Casey in their midst. And Casey could well be accompanied by former Secretary of State Alexander Haig.
If they make the journey, Casey and Haig will join a gathering of the world’s Catholic elite on St. John’s Day. Dressed in scarlet uniforms and black capes, brandishing swords and waving flags emblazoned with the eight-pointed Maltese cross, these Catholic brothers and sisters will, in an atmosphere of pomp and circumstance befitting a coronation, swear allegiance to the defense of the Holy Mother Church.
Casey and Haig are both members of the Knights of Malta, a legendary Vatican order dating back to the Crusades, when the “warrior monks” served as the military arm of the Catholic church. The knights, in their latter-day incarnation as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), are a historical anomaly. Although the order has no land mass other than a small headquarters in Rome, this unique papal entity holds the status of nation-state. It mints coins, prints stamps, has its own constitution and issues license plates and passports to an accredited diplomatic corps. The grand master of the order, Fra Angelo de Mojana di Cologna, holds a rank in the church equal to a cardinal and is recognized as a sovereign chief of state by 41 nations with which the SMOM exchanges ambassadors.
But the real power of the order lies with the lay members, who are active on five continents. Nobility forms the backbone of the SMOM; more than 40 percent of its 10,000 constituents are related to Europe’s oldest and most powerful Catholic families. Wealth is a de facto prerequisite for a knightly candidate, and each must pass through a rigorous screening. Protestants, Jews, Muslims and divorced or separated Catholics are ineligible.
“The eight-pointed white cross stands out everywhere as a symbol of charity toward mankind and as a comfort and consolation to the sick and the poor,” says Cyril Toumanoff, official historian of the SMOM. In recent years its members have carried on the Hospitaler tradition of the original knights by supporting international health care and relief efforts. They proudly offer aid to the needy regardless of race, creed or religious affiliation.
But the needy aided by certain SMOM members in the late ’40s were some of the 50,000 Nazi war criminals who, with the assistance of the International Red Cross, were furnished fake Vatican passports and, in some cases, clerical robes, and were smuggled on Bishop Alois Hudal’s “underground railroad” to South America. Among those was Klaus Barbie, the “butcher of Lyons.”
In 1948, the SMOM gave one of its highest awards of honor, the Gran Croci al Merito con Placca, to General Reinhard Gehlen, Adolf Hitler’s chief anti-Soviet spy. (Only three other people received this award.) Gehlen, who was not a Catholic, was touted as a formidable ally in the holy crusade against godless Marxism. After the war he and his well-developed spy apparatus — staffed largely by ex-Nazis — joined the fledgling CIA. Eventually, hundreds more Nazis ended up on the U.S. government’s payroll. Among them was Klaus Barbie.
“The CIA very early on made a decision that Nazis were more valuable as allies and agents than as war criminals,” says Victor Marchetti, an ex-CIA officer who was raised a Catholic. Marchetti is disturbed by the role of the CIA and his church in perpetuating the Nazi outrage. “It gets a little crazy,” he said, “when you let one thing [anticommunism] take over to the extent that you forgive everything else.”
The SMOM had given a different prestigious award in 1946 to another high-level CIA operative, James Jesus Angleton. “It had to do with counterintelligence,” Angleton told Mother Jones, when asked why he was chosen for such a distinction. During World War II, Angleton was head of the Rome station of the OSS. Later, on his return to Washington, he ran what was tantamount to the “Vatican desk” for the CIA. According to Angleton, the agency does not have a Vatican desk. Nor does it have an Israel desk, for that matter, yet Angleton also covered that area. The extreme sensitivity associated with Israel and the Vatican required that work relating to them be buried among Angleton’s counterintelligence staff, which was well-suited for such assignments.
During the early years of the Cold War, Angleton organized an elaborate spy network that enabled the CIA to obtain intelligence reports sent to the Vatican by papal nuncios stationed behind the Iron Curtain and in other “denied” areas. This was, at the time, one of the few means available to the CIA of penetrating the Eastern Bloc.
According to previously classified State Department memoranda, Angleton recommended that the CIA fund Catholic Action, an Italian lay organization headed by Luigi Gedda, a prominent right-wing ideologue who had also been honored by the knights. Gedda was a key operative in an effort undertaken by the CIA and the Vatican to “barricade the Reds” in the 1948 Italian elections. Only weeks before the election, it appeared the Italian Communist party would prevail. The CIA and the Vatican both feared the Communists might win unless drastic measures were taken.
At the behest of Pope Pius XII, Gedda mobilized a huge propaganda machine. More than 18,000 “civic committees” were formed to get out the anti-Communist vote. The Christian Democrats scored a decisive victory. Catholic Action is credited with turning the tables.
Catholic Action continued to be a dominant factor in Italian politics throughout the Cold War. It had great influence on trade unions and youth groups in Italy-groups that were heavily subsidized by the CIA, then under the leadership of Alien Dulles. Christian Democratic politicians and church figures were also among the beneficiaries of the CIA’s largess, which exceeded $20 million per year in the 1950s. The agency provided “project money” to numerous priests and bishops, usually in the form of contributions to their favorite charities. Often, these prelates were unaware of the true source of these funds. “We would consider people of this sort as our allies,” recalls Victor Marchetti, “even though they may not consider themselves in any way allied with us.”
Amazing Grace
The American section of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta has about 1,000 members — including 300 “dames.” They represent the vanguard of American Catholicism, the point at which the Vatican and the U.S. ruling elite intersect. “The Knights of Malta comprise what is perhaps the most exclusive club on earth,” Stephen Birmingharn, the social historian, has written. “They are more than the Catholic aristocracy…[they] can pick up a telephone and chat with the pope.”
And who are the American Knights? Mother Jones managed to obtain part of the secret membership list. On it we found some familiar names: Lee lacocca of Chrysler; Spyros Skouras, the shipping magnate; Robert Abplanalp, the aerosol tycoon and Nixon confidant; Barren Hilton of the hotel chain; John Volpe, former U.S. ambassador to Italy; and William Simon, who served as both treasury secretary and energy czar in the 1970s. At least one former envoy to the Vatican, Robert Wagner (the ex-mayor of New York), and the current emissary to the Vatican, William Wilson, are also members of the Knights of Malta. But there is one institution that stands out as the center of the SMOM in the United States — W.R. Grace & Company. J. Peter Grace, the company chairman, is also president of the American section of SMOM. No less than eight knights, including the chancellor of the order, John D.J. Moore (who was ambassador to Ireland under Nixon and Ford), are directors of W.R. Grace.
J. Peter Grace has a long history of involvement with CIA-linked enterprises, such as Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe, which was the brainchild of General Rein-hard Gehlen. He is also the board chairman of the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD), which has collaborated with multinational corporations and their client dictatorships in Latin America to squelch independent trade unions. Up to $100 million a year of CIA funds were pumped into “trustworthy” labor organizations such as AIFLD, whose graduates, according to AIFLD executive director William Doherty, were active in covert operations that led to the military coup in Brazil in 1964. During the early 1970s, Francis D. Flanagan, the Grace representative in Washington, D. C., was a member of ITT’s “Ad Hoc Committee on Chile,” which was instrumental in planning the overthrow of Salvador Allende. AIFLD’s National Workers’ Con-federation subsequently served as the chief labor mouthpiece for the Pinochet junta.
There are many other knights with CIA connections. Clare Boothe Luce, for example, the grande dame of American diplomacy, served as a U.S. ambassador to Italy in the 1950s and is now a member of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, which oversees covert operations. William Buckley, Jr., a former CIA operative and the editor of the National Review, is a member, as is his brother James, a former senator from New York and now undersecretary of state for security assistance.
Targeting the Pope
The American section of the SMOM is one of the main channels of communication between the CIA and the Vatican. Of course, neither party will acknowledge this. “The Knights of Malta is an honorific society of Catholics. That’s all it is. … It has no political function,” asserts former CIA director William Colby, who declined an invitation to join the illustrious order. (“I’m a little lower key,” he confessed.)
Technically speaking, Colby is correct; the knights do not have an explicit political function. They would never approach the Vatican with a message from the CIA. Nor would the Vatican ever openly ally itself with the political aims of the CIA. “Obviously, this is a dynamite type of proposition,” explains Victor Marchetti. “I’m sure that in the clandestine area there was real consideration of how to influence the Vatican, but you’ll never find a paper trail within the agency establishing an operational objective. A covert action of this sort is a very complex and sophisticated sort of thing…How much pressure the CIA would dare to exert on the Vatican is debatable. It would have to be done indirectly, on an informal basis.”
This is where the American section of the SMOM fits in. “They all belong to the same club,” says Marchetti. “One happens to be the director of the CIA, and another is a cardinal. When they get together and fraternize on a social basis, they exchange ideas and opinions as private individuals. But how do you separate the private individual from the professional?”
During the 1950s and the early 1960s, relations between the U.S. and the Vatican were conducted largely through Francis Cardinal Spellman, the “Grand Protector and Spiritual Advisor” to the SMOM’s American wing. An ultra-conservative ideologue, Spellman served as the right arm of Pope Pius XII and was a vocal supporter of U. S. military involvement in Vietnam.
But relations have not always been smooth, because Vatican policy has not always pleased American knights. In the early 1960s, Pope John XXIII took major steps to liberalize the church and to open a dialogue with the East. By doing so, he shifted papal policy from the strict anti-Communist line of his predecessor, Pius XII.
John XXIII felt that the Vatican had to adopt a more flexible posture — both socially and politically — if the church was to endure as a relevant institution. His attempts at rapprochement with the Soviet Union caught everybody by surprise and sent Vatican watchers at the CIA into a frenzy. But the agency had to step up its intelligence activity in the Vatican most cautiously, as the Kennedy ad-ministration was bending over backward to avoid any overt association with the Holy See. Kennedy, America’s only Catholic president, was so consumed by the possibility of a Protestant backlash that he rebuffed the pope’s efforts to mediate a thaw in East-West relations. Meanwhile Khrushchev, the supposed atheist, welcomed the pontiffs diplomatic overtures.
In May 1963, John McCone, a member of the SMOM and then director of the CIA, received a memorandum from James Spain, of the agency’s Office of National Estimates, on the ramifications of Pope John’s policies. There is “no doubt,” wrote Spain in the recently declassified 15-page memo, entitled “Change in the Church,” “that vigorous new currents are flowing in virtually every phase of the church’s thinking and activities. . . . [this has] resulted in a new approach toward Italian politics which is permissive rather than positive.”
When Spain visited the Vatican, posing as a scholar on a foreign service grant, he voiced his concerns about major gains made by the Italian Left in the 1963 election. Many felt the Left’s success was attributable to Pope John’s conciliatory attitude toward the Communists. This was the first election in which the Christian Democrats were not officially endorsed by the Italian Bishops’ Conference. The pope had insisted upon maintaining a neutral stance so as not to jeopardize his Soviet initiative.
Speaking with officials of the Curia, Spain discovered a great deal of discontent regarding the direction in which the church was moving. Some even suggested to him that the pope was “politically naive and unduly influenced by a handful of ‘liberal’ clerics.” He heard tales about “the moral and political unreliability of [the pope’s] young collaborators.” Among those who were particularly concerned by Pope John’s policies, according to Spain’s report to McCone, were members of the Roman aristocracy and the papal nobility, who, according to Spain, had lost many of their traditional privileges when Pius XII died.
A Holy Mole
John McCone now took a personal as well as professional interest in the Vatican situation. Thomas Kalamasinas, the station chief in Rome, was instructed to raise the priority of the Vatican spying operation. But the CIA ran into a snag when it learned that some of its best contacts — for example, the conservative prelates who held key posts in the Extraordinary Affairs Section of the Papal Secretariat, which was responsible for the implementation of Vatican foreign policy — were shut out by John XXIII’s tendency to circumvent his own bureaucracy when dealing with the Russians. The pope evidently feared that his diplomatic efforts might be sabotaged by some Machiavellian monsignor. Thus, he pursued his goal outside the normal channels of the Curia. A small group of trusted collaborators served as couriers for the pope, who rarely used the telephone to speak with anyone outside the Vatican for fear that the line might be tapped.
When John XXIII died in 1963, CIA analysts prepared a detailed report predicting that Giovanni Cardinal Montini of Milan would be the next pope. They were right. But more amazing than the prediction is the fact that the agency was later able to confirm the identity of John’s successor in advance of the official announcement. How was the CIA privy to such information, given the excessive secrecy surrounding the College of Cardinals during a papal election? Italian intelligence sources maintained that the CIA bugged the conclave. Time magazine correspondent Roland Flamini speculates in his book Pope, Premier, President that the agency may have developed an informant among the cardinals, who communicated with the CIA through a hidden electronic transmitter.
Giovanni Montini was no stranger to American intelligence. During World War II, he worked in the Office of the Papal Secretariat and passed information to a grateful OSS. Later he had a falling out with Pope Pius XII and was “exiled” to Milan. This news was well-received by Vatican watchers within the CIA, who had pegged Montini as a “liberal”. Nevertheless, he remained an important figure in the church, with extensive religious and political contacts. Every CIA station chief in Italy made a point of getting to know him, and CIA “project money” was donated to various orphanages and charities whose principal benefactor was the archbishop of Milan.
When Montini became pope, taking the name Paul VI, he continued to pursue an open-door policy with the Soviet Union. Leaders from Eastern Europe were received on state visits (Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko had seven meetings with Pope Paul), and many Vatican officials traveled to Moscow for talks. Toward the end of his papacy, Paul VI let it be known that he was not averse to a center-left coalition of the Italian Communist party and the Christian Democrats. This infuriated hard-line elements within the CIA. In 1976, the Georgetown University Center for Strategic and International Studies, a conservative think tank, sponsored a conference on the Communist threat in Italy. Panelists included former CIA director William Colby (who was station chief in Rome during the 1950s); Clare Boothe Luce, who was U.S. ambassador to Rome at the same time; Ray Cline, another ex-CIA official; and John Connally, then a member of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. Their message, which doubtless reached the pope, was unequivocal: Eurocommunism was a threat to U.S. security, and Marxists must never be allowed to participate in the Italian government.
This was not the first time pressures from outside the Vatican were exerted on Pope Paul. In 1967, Paul authored a controversial encyclical, Populorum Progressio, in which he criticized colonial repression and recommended economic and social remedies that were widely interpreted as a denunciation of capitalism. Shortly thereafter, an international group of businessmen asked the Holy Father to “clarify” his economic views. The delegation included George C. Moore, then chairman of Citibank. Pope Paul subsequently issued a statement in which he denied any hostility toward private enterprise.
Liberation Theology
Classified CIA studies prepared throughout the 1960s with titles such as “The Catholic Church Reassesses Its Role in Latin America” depicted a church with a commitment to economic and political reform. The studies foresaw the emergence of “liberation theology,” which would provide the theoretical basis for a “people’s church” that would establish itself in Latin America in the early 1970s. Pope Paul helped fulfill the CIA’s predictions by appointing socially conscious bishops and by encouraging church activists who opposed South American military dictatorships. Paul’s gesture toward the Left was, no doubt, a calculated maneuver directed at the hearts and minds of the Catholic masses. Political reality demanded the promotion of a palatable Christian alternative, lest the brethren put their faith in “Saint” Fidel or Che Guevara. At first, some CIA officials favored Paul’s reformist approach as an effective antidote to communism, but as time went by a consensus developed inside the agency that Paul VI had gone too far, that his strategy would backfire and play into the hands of the Marxist revolutionaries.
As Pope Paul VI grew older, great concern developed within intelligence circles over who would succeed him. Agency analysts drew up profiles on leading papal candidates, identifying those who were likely to be sympathetic to American interests. In 1977, Terence Cardinal Cooke, the current Grand Protector and Spiritual Advisor of the SMOM, traveled to Eastern Europe to discuss the matter of choosing a candidate to succeed Pope Paul. During this sojourn, Cardinal Cooke met personally with Karol Cardinal Wojtyla of Krakow, who was noted for his anti-Communist leanings. Cooke’s coalition-building efforts bore fruit the following year, after Paul’s successor, Pope John Paul I, died, having served scarcely a month. (There were widespread rumors that he had been poisoned.) In October 1978, the Vatican’s Sacred College of Cardinals elected Karol Wojtyla as pontiff.
The New Inquisition
October 1976. Father Patrick Rice is dragged from his prison cell in Buenos Aires by members of the Argentine Anti-Communist Alliance, a paramilitary police agency. He has already been held incommunicado for several days and has been beaten ruthlessly. The routine is about to begin again: electric shock treatment, water torture that makes him feel as if he is drowning. Throughout the ordeal he hears the screams of other prisoners. Eventually he is transferred to police headquarters, in which are passage walls covered with swastikas.
“My Christian faith became very real to me,” remembers the priest, who survived two months of captivity and recovered in a psychiatric ward.
Father Rice is one of the lucky ones. During the past 15 years, 1,500 priests, nuns and bishops have been murdered, imprisoned, tortured or expelled from Latin America. “Any Christian who defends the poor,” says Rice, “can expect to be persecuted and mistreated by the security police.”
Only a generation ago, the persecution of the Catholic clergy would have been unthinkable, for the church had always sided with the reactionary sectors of society — the wealthy landowners and the military. But Pope John XXII’s vision of Catholicism as a community of believers in and of the world sparked major reforms. His policies set the stage for the historic gathering of Latin American bishops that took place during the papacy of Paul VI at Medellin, Colombia, in 1968. It was at this conference that the liberation theology predicted by the CIA earlier in the decade was born. The bishops called upon the church to “defend the rights of the oppressed” and recognize a “preferential option for the poor” in the struggle for social justice.
Liberation theology came to life in the form of thousands of grassroots Christian communities that sprang up throughout Latin America, where nine out of ten people are Catholic, and eight out of ten are destitute. Within these groups, religion became less a ritualistic phenomenon and more an inspiration to clergy and laity attempting to remove the yoke of oppression from the poor. Some priests even began to align themselves with the left-wing guerrillas engaged in armed struggle against U.S.-backed regimes. “The Christian base communities are the greatest threat to military dictatorships throughout Latin America,” said Maryknoll Sister Ita Ford in late 1980, three weeks before she, two other American nuns and Jean Donovan, a lay missionary worker, were brutally murdered in El Salvador.
The CIA was quick to recognize the “subversive” potential of liberation theology and mounted an extensive campaign to undermine the new movement. The agency’s strategy, formulated during the late 1960s and early ’70s, when Richard Helms was director, was to exploit the polarization between the activist clergy and those who still identified with the established order (the holdovers from the Cold War era, when missionaries were routinely employed as agents and informants). Toward this end, as Penny Lernoux documents in her book Cry of the People, the CIA used right-wing Catholic organizations in Latin America to harass outspoken prelates and political reformers. The agency also trained and financed police agencies responsible for the torture and murder of bishops, priests and nuns, some of them U.S. citizens.
In 1975, the Bolivian Interior Ministry — a publicly acknowledged subsidiary of the CIA — drew up a master plan for persecuting progressive clergy. The scheme, dubbed the “Banzer Plan” — after Hugo Banzer, Bolivia’s right-wing dictator (who retained Klaus Barbie as his security advisor) — was adopted by ten Latin American governments. The plan involved compiling dossiers on church activists; censoring and shutting down progressive Catholic media outlets; planting Communist literature on church premises; and arresting or expelling undesirable foreign priests and nuns. The CIA also funded anti-Marxist religious groups that engaged in a wide range of covert operations, from bombing churches to overthrowing constitutionally elected governments. The success of the Banzer Plan was vividly demonstrated in San Salvador in the late 1970s, when an anonymous group distributed a leaflet that read: “Be a Patriot! Kill a Priest!” A series of clerical assassinations followed, culminating in the murder of the progressive and popular Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero. More recently, the Reagan administration has sharpened its attack on progressive elements of the church, both at home and abroad. The Santa Fe Report, prepared for the Council for Inter-American Security and presented in 1980 to the Republican Platform Committee by a team of ultraconservative advisors, states that “U.S. foreign policy must begin to counter (not react against) liberation theology as it is utilized in Latin America by the ‘liberation theology’ clergy.” In order to garner support for this policy, the Institute for Religion and Democracy (IRD), an interdenominational organization, was established in 1981 with funding from right-wing institutions, including the Smith ‘Richardson and Sarah Scaife foundations, both of which have served as CIA financial conduits. The IRD unleashed a propaganda drive against church activists at the forefront of domestic opposition to U.S. aid to the government of El Salvador and other repressive regimes in Latin America. The IRD campaign has been highly successful, even reaching the pages of Reader’s Digest, from where it was picked up by 60 Minutes.
The Holy Mafia
Under Casey, the CIA has continued its attack on progressive elements within the church. Casey is also a member of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
Of all the groups that are engaged in the U.S.-sponsored campaign against liberation theology, none has played a more significant role than Opus Dei (“God’s Work”). A fast-growing Catholic lay society whose political activities are shrouded in secrecy, Opus Dei was founded in 1928 by Jose Maria Escriva de Balaguer, a young Spanish priest and lawyer. Escriva espoused complete obedience to church dogma. Today, there are more than 70,000 members of the order in 87 countries. Only a small percentage are priests. The rest are mostly middle- and upper-class businessmen, professionals, military personnel and government officials. Some are university students. The members contribute regularly to the group’s financial coffers and are encouraged to practice “holy shrewdness” and “holy coercion” in an effort to win converts.
Much of what is known about Opus Dei comes from ex-members such as John Roche, a professor at Oxford University in England, who broke his oath of secrecy after leaving the order. According to Roche, self-flagellation with whips and spiked chains is a normal part of the rigid spiritual discipline that Opus Dei imposes on its full-time members, including college-age recruits of both genders. “Personal identity suffers a severe battering: some are reduced to shadows of their former selves, others become severely disturbed,” writes Roche in a paper called “The Inner World of Opus Dei.” “Internally, it is totalitarian and imbued with fascist ideas turned to religious purposes, ideas which were surely drawn from the Spain of its early years. It is virtually a sect or cult in spirit, a law unto itself, totally self-centered, grudgingly accepting Roman authority because it still considers Rome orthodox, and because of the vast pool of recruits accessible to it as a respected Catholic organization.”
In recent years, Opus Dei has emerged internationally as one of the most powerful and politically committed of the Catholic lay groups. Detractors have likened the organization to a “saintly Mafia,” for its members control a large number of banks and financial institutions, including Rumasa, the largest conglomerate in Spain’s private sector. In the latter stages of the Franco regime, ten out of 19 cabinet officers belonged to or were closely allied with Opus Dei. Despite the active political role the order plays wherever it exists, Father Malcolm Kennedy, an American spokesperson for Opus Dei, insists it is “inconceivable…that Opus Dei leaders in any country would try to influence political decisions.”
The tentacles of “Octopus Dei,” as it is sometimes called, stretch all the way to the U.S., where David Kennedy, former chairman of Continental Illinois Bank and treasury secretary under Richard Nixon, is said to be a “conspicuous friend” of the conservative religious order, despite the fact that he is a Mormon. Continental Illinois owns shares of an Opus Dei bank in Barcelona (for more on Kennedy’s links to the church, see box, page 37).
Opus Dei also controls a wide range of media assets (600 newspapers, 52 radio and TV stations, 12 film companies and 38 news agencies) and sponsors educational and social programs in various countries. These efforts have been endorsed by members of the American section of the SMOM such as William Simon (Citicorp) and Francis X. Stankard (Chase Manhattan Bank), who have spoken at Opus Dei seminars and other functions of the group.
“One of the problems that Opus Dei runs into,” says Sargent Shriver, a cooperating (not full-time) member of the order and a former Democratic candidate for vice president, “is that a lot of Catholics join the organization, and they’re doing this, that and the other thing, and Opus Dei becomes tainted because of them.”
This is particularly true in Latin America. In Chile, for example, Opus Dei elicited support from Chilean bishops for the overthrow of President Salvador Allende and worked closely with CIA-funded organizations such as the Fatherland and Liberty goon squads, which subsequently merged with DINA, the dreaded Chilean secret police. In 1971, the CIA began financing the Chilean Institute for General Studies (IGS), which has been described as an Opus Dei think tank. Its members include lawyers, free-market economists and executives from influential publications. One of the leading IGS staffers was Hernan Cubillos, founder of Que Pasa, an Opus Dei magazine, and publisher of El Mercurio, the largest newspaper in Santiago (and one that was subsidized by the CIA). After the coup, a number of IGS technocrats became cabinet members and advisors to the Pinochet junta; Cubillos served as foreign minister.
Opus Dei powerbrokers have gained enormous influence inside the Vatican since they helped install the current pope. The courting of John Paul II began when he was still the archbishop of Krakow. He was asked to speak at Opus Dei colleges and at the group’s international headquarters in Rome. In an effort to enhance Wojtyla’s image as papabile, these speeches were printed by Opus Dei in book form and circulated among members of the Vatican hierarchy. When Karol Wojtyla became pope, he returned the favor by elevating Opus Dei to the unique status of a “personal prelature.” Critics of Opus Dei fear that the pope’s edict will allow its members to elude the authority of local bishops in special circumstances, thereby strengthening the order’s tendency to function as a “church within a church.” This was an important victory for Opus Dei, which had been rebuffed on previous occasions by both Pope John XXIII and Pope Paul VI.
The decision to upgrade the status of Opus Dei appears to be part of an over-all strategy to counter the influence of Jesuits and other progressive clerics active in the liberation theology movement. Pope John Paul II’s feud with the Jesuits came to a head in October 1981, when he suspended the order’s constitution and replaced its ailing superior general, Father Pedro Arrupe, with a Jesuit of his own choosing. Many Jesuits have caused turmoil in the ‘Vatican by questioning papal pronouncements on birth control, priestly celibacy, the barring of women from the priesthood and, most significantly, clerical involvement in politics. Because it is predominantly a lay organization, Opus Dei is exempt from these rules. The pope recently asked leaders of Opus Dei, which thus far has kept out of Communist countries, to begin operating in Poland.
It is rather ironic that John Paul II should chastise priests for engaging in political activity when he is by far the most overtly political pope of modern times. A strong patriot, John Paul has even threatened to fight alongside his countrymen should the Soviets try to crush the workers’ rebellion in Poland. And his political activism has not only included well-publicized trips and rhetorical speeches. With his approval, the Vatican quietly funneled $40 million to Solidarity. But despite the pontiff’s support for the Polish union — and the issuing of an encyclical in strong defense of the rights of labor — his sympathies do not extend to the rights of workers in Vatican City: he has opposed demands for decent wages by the Vatican’s low-paid employees, and there have even been rumblings of a possible strike.

submitted by Ainsoph777 to Jesuitworldorder [link] [comments]


2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
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2017.05.21 17:02 EnciclopedistadeTlon Domingo de lectura 46: Murakami, Wikipedia, Snorri Sturluson, Borges y B. Willingham

Cada domingo elegimos al azar cinco textos del documento online en el que cargo las sugerencias de todos.
 
 
Los textos de este domingo (tirada)
 
1) Ficción breve: “El espejo” de Haruki Murakami (PDF), sugerido por justroku.
Haruki Murakami (1949) es un escritor y traductor japonés, autor de novelas y relatos. Es el escritor japonés más popular en Occidente, y la influencia de la literatura y la música occidental es notable en él. Aunque parte de la crítica de su país califica su obra de literatura pop, es reconocido a nivel internacional y ha ganado numerosos premios. Se lo suele asociar con el surrealismo y el posmodernismo.
 
2) No ficción breve: Artículo “Aspecto físico y personalidad de Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart” de Wikipedia, sugerido por sebs24.
Wikipedia (2001) es una enciclopedia libre, políglota y editada colaborativamente. Es administrada por la Fundación Wikimedia, una organización sin ánimo de lucro cuya financiación está basada en donaciones.
 
3) Microrrelato: “La promesa del rey” de Snorri Sturluson, sugerido por Aleblanco1987.
Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241) fue un escaldo (poeta guerrero vikingo), historiador, jurista y escritor islandés. En dos ocasiones fue elegido letrado del Alþing (Parlamento islandés). Es el autor de la Edda prosaica o Edda menor, que incluye narraciones de mitología nórdica y poesía. También es el autor de la Heimskringla, una historia de los reyes noruegos que comienza con un tono legendario en la Saga de los Ynglings y alcanza la primera parte del medioevo de la historia de Escandinavia.
 
La promesa del rey
 
Tostig, hermano del rey sajón de Inglaterra, Harold Hijo de Godwin, codiciaba el poder y se alió con Harald Hardrada, rey de Noruega. (Este había militado en Constantinopla y en África; su estandarte se llamaba Landsda, Desolador de Tierras; también fue poeta famoso). Con un ejército noruego desembarcaron en la costa oriental y rindieron el castillo de Jorvik (York). Al sur de Jorvik los enfrentó el ejército sajón. Veinte jinetes se allegaron a las filas del invasor; los hombres, y también los caballos, estaban revestidos de hierro. Uno de los jinetes gritó:
—¿Está aquí el conde Tostig?
—No niego estar aquí —dijo el conde.
—Si verdaderamente eres Tostig —dijo el jinete— vengo a decirte que tu hermano te ofrece su perdón, su amistad y la tercera parte del reino.
—Si acepto —dijo Tostig— ¿qué dará el rey a Harald Hardrada?
—No se ha olvidado de él —contestó el jinete—. Le dará seis pies de tierra inglesa y, ya que es tan alto, uno más.
—Entonces —dijo Tostig— dile a tu rey que pelearemos hasta morir.
Los jinetes volvieron. Harald Hardrada preguntó, pensativo:
—¿Quién era ese caballero que habló tan bien?
El conde respondió:
—Era Harold Hijo de Godwin.
Antes que declinara el sol de ese día, el ejército noruego fue derrotado. Harald Hardrada pereció en la batalla y también el conde.
Del capítulo XCI del décimo libro de la Heimskringla.
 
4) Poesía: “1964” de Jorge Luis Borges, sugerida por EduBA.
Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986) fue un escritor y traductor argentino, autor de cuentos, ensayos breves y poemas, y una destacada figura literaria del siglo XX. En sus textos, que muchas veces trascienden géneros y engañan al lector con su juego entre lo ficticio y lo real, se aúnan la filosofía, la mitología, la historia, lo onírico, la religión, el lenguaje y la intertextualidad.
 
1964
 
I
 
Ya no es mágico el mundo. Te han dejado.
Ya no compartirás la clara luna
ni los lentos jardines. Ya no hay una
luna que no sea espejo del pasado,
 
cristal de soledad, sol de agonías.
Adiós las mutuas manos y las sienes
que acercaba el amor. Hoy sólo tienes
la fiel memoria y los desiertos días.
 
Nadie pierde (repites vanamente)
sino lo que no tiene y no ha tenido
nunca, pero no basta ser valiente
 
para aprender el arte del olvido.
Un símbolo, una rosa, te desgarra
y te puede matar una guitarra.
 
II
 
Ya no seré feliz. Tal vez no importa.
Hay tantas otras cosas en el mundo;
un instante cualquiera es más profundo
y diverso que el mar. La vida es corta
 
y aunque las horas son tan largas, una
oscura maravilla nos acecha,
la muerte, ese otro mar, esa otra flecha
que nos libra del sol y de la luna
 
y del amor. La dicha que me diste
y me quitaste debe ser borrada;
lo que era todo tiene que ser nada.
 
Sólo que me queda el goce de estar triste,
esa vana costumbre que me inclina
al Sur, a cierta puerta, a cierta esquina.
   
5) Cómic: Fables #1 de Bill Willingham, Lan Medina, Mark Buckingham Steve Leialoha, Craig Hamilton y Todd Klein (versión en inglés), sugerido por Fran.
Bill Willingham (1956) es un escritor y artista de cómics estadounidense, conocido por su trabajo en los cómics Elementals y Fables. Ha escrito e ilustrado para juegos de rol y para DC, así como algunas novelas de fantasía y aventuras. Se describe a sí mismo como "rabiosamente pro-Israel" y afirma que Fables desde un comienzo pretendió ser una metáfora del conflicto israelí-palestino.
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2017.04.18 17:40 ccm200 Proposition de résumé sur l'élection, à destination des étrangers

Bonjour,
J'ai constaté que le nombre d'étrangers créant des fils pour nous interroger sur l'élection avait un peu augmenté, et cela va sans doute s'accentuer jusqu'à ce weekend. Il n'y a, à ma connaissance, pas encore eu de gros megathread ou de commentaire en anglais sur lesquels les rediriger. Je me propose donc pour en ébaucher un.
Je vais tenter de faire ça le mieux possible mais aussi le plus vite possible, avec l'idée de l'améliorer avec votre aide avant de le valider. Il y aura des trucs à corriger, des imprécisions, des manquements à la neutralité, des oublis et des fautes, car je suis fatigué et que mon anglais est bien rouillé.
Et oui, on pourrait probablement se simplifier la tâche en compilant des articles tout prêts de médias anglo-saxons, mais il faut bien que quelqu'un ébauche un début de quelque chose je pense ? Sinon j'imagine qu'il n'y aura toujours rien d'ici ce weekend (ce qui n'est pas très grave mais je pense qu'une telle initiative va forcément se révéler utile).
Guide to the upcoming French presidential election:
French presidential elections happen every 5 years.
Current President: François Hollande (Socialist Party). Not running for re-election.
Two-round system= Unless a candidate gets more than 50% in the first round (it won't happen), all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting is held between the top 2.
First round: April 23rd 2017 (this sunday)
Second round: May 7th 2017 (2 weeks later)
The results will be known at 8pm.
Our legislative elections will take place shortly after:
For the National Assembly: June 11th and June 18th 2017
For the Senate: September 24th 2017
There are 11 candidates in total. 4 of them are leading in the polls and have a real chance to qualify for the second round:
Ideology: French nationalism, National conservatism, Souverainism, Protectionism, Right-wing populism, Anti-immigration, Hard euroscepticism.
Her father Jean-Marie Le Pen, who founded the party, was an openly racist, anti semite and homophobic convicted holocaust denier who didn't actually seriously intend to govern.
Since 2011, when she became leader of the FN, Marine Le Pen pursued a policy of "de-demonization" of the party by softening its image. She also shifted its position on the economical spectrum, turning the neoliberal agenda into a protectionist policy.
The National Front has established itself as one of the largest political forces in France: it became the first French party at the 2014 European elections (with 25% of the votes); again in the last departmental elections; and again, came out in 1st place in the last regional elections with a historic result of just under 28% of the votes.
Programme: opposition to the French membership of the European Union and the Schengen Area, economic protectionism and exit from the eurozone, zero tolerance approach to law and order issues, opposition to immigration, ban on religious symbols.
Her campaign has been punctuated by judicial inquiries into fraud of her party, but it doesn't seem to have impacted her electorate.
Results in previous presidential elections:
2012: Marine Le Pen 17,90% (3rd place in the first round)
2007: Jean-Marie Le Pen 10,44% (4rth in the first round)
2002: Jean-Marie Le Pen 16,86% (2nd in the first round, qualified for the second. He lost against Jacques Chirac)
Ideology: Social liberalism, Pro-Europeanism, Third Way.
Emmanuel Macron is a newcomer in french politics. A former investment banker at Rothschild Bank, he advised president François Hollande on economic reform before serving as economy minister from 2014 to last year. Although he has never held elected office, he decided to resign to create a new centrist political movement and run for the presidency.
He claims to be "neither left-wing nor right-wing" or "both left-wing and right-wing", a progressive willing to shake up the french political landscape.
Programme: pro-business, pro-EU, his policies aim at reforming the French economy.
He has been backed by politicians from all tendencies (except the far-right) but critics say he talks in empty slogans in order to appeal to the masses.
Results in previous presidential elections: X (never stood for any election, newcomer)
The centrist MoDem party (that now backs Macron) came 5th in 2012 (with 9,13%), 3rd in 2007 (18,57%) and 4rth in 2002 (6,84%) but the context is very different this year. Macron's electorate comes from all tendencies and voted for either the right, the left or the center in previous elections, some also are former abstentionists.
Ideology: Ecosocialism, Left-wing populism, Environmentalism, Alter-globalization, Soft euroscepticism.
Jean Luc Mélenchon is a former member of the Socialist Party, which he left in 2008, denouncing its "liberal drift". He founded the Left Party and ran for President in 2012 (coming in 4rth place). He created a new movement last year, for the purpose of running for the 2017 elections.
Programme: establishment of a Sixth Republic through a constituent assembly (to reform the Constitution and get rid of the French "Republican Monarchy" political system), renegotiation of the EU treaties (Plan A) or referendum to leave it (Plan B: unlike Tsipras he intends to put a real pressure on his european counterparts with the threat of actually leaving), environmental planning, raise of the minimal wage, restoration of the full retirement age to 60, feminist agenda, independent stance of France on Foreign Affairs.
He is backed by the Communists.
His campaign has been recognized as probably the most successful one by most commentators (his use of social media notably was widely successful) and he saw a surge in the last month/month and a half of the campaign, stealing many votes from Socialist candidate Benoit Hamon. Detractors have criticized him for his stance on international matters, accusing him of being Pro-Poutine.
Results in previous presidential elections:
Jean-Luc Mélenchon: 11,10% in 2012 (4rth in the first round)
The political offer on the far-left/left side was quite different in 2007 and 2002: including the data isn't useful.
Ideology: Gaullism, Liberal conservatism, Christian democracy.
Former Prime Minister under Sarkozy and a minister several times, François Fillon won the LR primary in December by surprise (polls didn't see it coming).
Programme: liberal reforms including the dismissing of 500,000 civil servants, reform of the labour code and of the health insurance system, end of the wealth tax (ISF).
His campaign was strongly criticized for its "Thatcherite" aspect and then he was accused of misappropriating about 1 million euros of public funds when a newspaper revealed that he hired his wife and two of his children as parliamentary assistants (legal in France) although it is doubtful whether they actually worked (illegal, of course). This affair was coined as the "Penelope Gate" scandal. From then on, his campaign took a darker and darker tone and his former respectable image totally changed.
But he managed to preserve the support of his party and his core support base is standing firm. These include many traditionalist Catholics (who got radicalized politically since the parliamentary debates on gay marriage, in 2013).
Results in previous presidential elections:
2012: Nicolas Sarkozy 27,18% (2nd in the first round, qualified for the second round. He lost against Hollande)
2007: Nicolas Sarkozy 31,18% (1st in the first round. He won against Ségolène Royal in the second round)
2002: Jacques Chirac 19,88% (1st in the first round. He won against Jean-Marie Le Pen in the second round)
Voilà, je m'arrête là pour maintenant. Je voulais tous les lister mais ça prend du temps.
Il faudra ajouter des photos et sans doute un paragraphe sur le contexte global du pays, économiquement socialement et politiquement. Ainsi qu'un gros paragraphe sur les sondages, l'abstention et tout ça, avec plein de liens.
J'ai fait vite, soumettez toutes les corrections qui vous semblent nécessaires, sur le contenu comme sur le formatage. Et pas la peine de chercher à deviner qui je soutiens, je vais vous le dire : c'est Mélenchon. Forcément comme je trouve que c'est celui qui a le programme le plus intéressant, j'ai sans doute soigné sa partie davantage que celles des autres. Mais ce n'est qu'une ébauche, je ne comptais pas laisser comme ça, je reviendrai modifier lorsque mon esprit sera un peu plus clair et en prenant en compte vos suggestions. Les % de sondages que j'ai indiqués ne sont pas exacts, j'ai mis ce dont je me souvenais, ce sera à modifier en fonction des dernières tendances. J'ai juste pris comme support Wikipedia, il faudra ajouter d'autres sources, proposez celles qui vous semblent les plus pratiques pour nos amis étrangers.
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2017.03.09 16:56 lulydelmar1 "El momento populista" Entrevista con Alain de Benoist Droite-Gauche, c’est fini! Para leer con urgencia a la luz de las futuras elecciones en Francia y Europa.

Breizh-info.com: “Derecha e izquierda, ¡se terminó!”: Tal es el subtítulo de su trabajo. ¿En qué basa su declaración, sabiendo sin embargo que los candidatos, especialmente en Francia – y lo vemos con motivo de este período preelectoral -, afirman siempre estar a la derecha o a la izquierda (incluidos los extremos) en su mayor parte ?
Alain de Benoist: Dediqué un capítulo entero de mi libro a la historia de la división derecha-izquierda. Además del hecho de que siempre ha existido una multitud de diferentes derechas e izquierdas, demuestro que a lo que esta división se refiere nunca deja de evolucionar con el tiempo. ¡Estar a la izquierda en 1880 era militar por el colonialismo; estar en la derecha era ser hostil a la separación de la Iglesia y el Estado! En el pasado la izquierda era el partido de la lucha de clases, hoy es el partido de los derechos individuales, mientras que gran parte de la derecha se ha unido a la defensa del mercado, al principio axiomático del interés y a la explicación económica del mundo.
Los politólogos, por su parte, nunca han logrado dar una definición autorizada de la derecha y de la izquierda. En medio de una significativa crisis de identidad, los partidos de la derecha y de la izquierda se han vuelto incapaces de dar un significado preciso a estos términos. A esto se suma la desaparición de las familias sociológicas, donde la gente solía votar por un partido dado toda su vida: la gente hoy “zapea” (como con un mando a distancia frente al televisor. N.d.T.) de derecha a izquierda o al contrario, sin ver nada más que política de derecha hecha por los partidos de izquierda o política de izquierda hecha por los partidos de derecha. En cuanto a los ensayos políticos que aparecen en las bibliotecas, es cada vez más difícil decir si sus autores (Marcel Gauchet, Jean-Claude Michéa, Michel Onfray, etc.) están a la izquierda o a la derecha.
La verdad es que la díada izquierda-derecha se ha vuelto obsoleta para el propósito de describir el panorama político actual. La división izquierda-derecha sólo funciona funcionalmente bajo el peso de los hábitos: hay una gravedad histórica de la lógica bipolar que es mantenida por el juego político, especialmente en el momento de las elecciones. Pero cuando nos referimos a las encuestas de opinión, vemos que a los ojos de la mayoría de los franceses, esta división está cada vez más desprovista de significado. En 1980, todavía sólo el 30% consideraba obsoletas las nociones de izquierda y derecha. En marzo de 1981 era el 33%; en febrero de 1988, el 48%; en noviembre de 1989, el 56%; en 2011, el 58%. ¡Hoy es el 73%! Una progresión extraordinariamente significativa.
El surgimiento de los movimientos populistas, que a menudo articulan elementos de la derecha y elementos de la izquierda en la misma demanda política y social que emana de la base, contra una oferta política desde “arriba” considerada decepcionante, incluso insoportable, es una de las consecuencias de esta evolución. Por un lado, el populismo sustituye el eje horizontal derecha-izquierda por uno vertical “los que están arriba contra los que están abajo”, pero esto suscita, acompaña y acentúa nuevas divisiones que reemplazan cada vez más la división derecha-izquierda: la división entre aquellos que se benefician de la globalización y aquellos que son sus víctimas, la división entre los que piensan en términos de pueblos y los que sólo conocen una humanidad concebida como una suma de individuos, la división entre la Francia periférica y la Francia urbanizada, el pueblo y las élites globalizadas, la gente común y la Nueva clase, las clases populares así como las clases medias en proceso de declive y la gran burguesía globalista, los defensores de las fronteras y los partidarios de la “apertura”, los “invisibles” y los “sobre-representados” , “los conservadores y los liberales”, etc.
La formidable ola de desconfianza hacia las élites (política, financiera, mediática y otras) no cesa de aumentar el populismo que tiene el efecto directo de eliminar – Mélenchón habló de “limpiar” – la vieja casta de los llamados partidos de gobierno. La democracia cristiana y el Partido Comunista han sido barridos en Italia, Syriza en Grecia casi provocó la desaparición del Pasok, la última elección presidencial en Austria fue disputada entre un ecologista y un populista. Podríamos dar muchos otros ejemplos.
¿Será diferente en Francia? No tengo la impresión. Entre todos los escenarios que siguen siendo posibles con respecto a la próxima elección presidencial, un duelo Macron-Le Pen en la segunda ronda no es el más improbable. Nadie parece darse cuenta de que en este escenario, y por primera vez en la historia de la elección presidencial, ninguno de los dos grandes partidos que han gobernado alternativamente Francia durante más de treinta años estaría presente en la segunda ronda, lo que representaría un giro histórico de la más alta importancia.
Breizh-info.com: Los estratos populares parecen efectivamente exasperados, cansados, por la forma en que la ciudad es administrada. Pero, sin embargo, ¿son una fuerza que puede generar propuestas? ¿La tasa de abstención en las elecciones, la falta de movilizaciones en grandes manifestaciones sociales o societarias, no son signos de un abandono de la participación de la vida de la ciudad por parte del pueblo?
Alain de Benoist: Son más bien la prueba de la amplitud de un malestar que echa raíces en la crisis de la representación: la gente tiene el sentimiento de que ya no es representada por sus representantes, muchos piensan que es inútil hacer uso en el día de las elecciones de una soberanía que saben que perderán el día después. Por eso los populismos aspiran a formas de democracia más directas, basadas en el referéndum o participativas, conscientes de las disfunciones y límites de una democracia liberal que ha sustituido la soberanía popular por la soberanía parlamentaria y que hoy está dirigida por una casta oligárquica que sólo busca defender sus solos intereses.
Las clases populares no sólo están exasperadas por el “modo en que se maneja la ciudad”. Quieren poner fin a la gestión administrativa, es decir, poner fin al poder de una expertocracia que pretende que los problemas políticos sólo son problemas técnicos en último término (para los cuales sólo existe evidentemente una única solución racional) y que buscan rebajar el gobierno de los hombres a la administración de las cosas. Se dan cuenta de que la “gobernanza” es sólo un medio de gobernar sin el pueblo. Lo que Vincent Coussedière llamó el “populismo del pueblo” que no es otra cosa que una demanda dirigida a los políticos de practicar realmente la política en lugar de atenerse a la gestión.
Me pregunta usted si los “estratos populares” son una “fuerza capaz de generar propuestas”. En primer lugar, llamar a las cosas por su nombre: los “estratos” populares son en realidad las clases populares y su oposición a las élites surge de la relación de clases, del mismo modo que la crítica del populismo traduce un desprecio de clase, la ideología dominante no es otra cosa más que la ideología de la clase dominante. Entonces, ¿qué se entiende por esta expresión estereotipada “fuerza que puede generar propuestas?”.
El pueblo representa el poder constituyente, y está tanto más presente ante sí mismo cuando tiene los medios para decidir por sí mismo lo que le concierne. Ya se trate de la inmigración, la globalización, o el poder de la Comisión Europea, la gente ve que los otros nunca han dejado de decidir en su lugar, y que estas decisiones han alterado su vida cotidiana. Es perfectamente apto para juzgar lo que es bueno y malo para sí mismo. Para que haga “propuestas”, hace falta solamente que se le consulte o que se le den los medios para decidir.
Breizh-info.com: ¿Por qué la palabra “populismo” recibe una tan mala prensa – calificando a cada uno de sus opositores – dentro de la élite?
Alain de Benoist: “Populismo”, como “comunitarismo” [comunitarismo se refiere a la actitud de las minorías, raciales o sexuales por ejemplo, a separarse de la sociedad en general. N.d.T.], también se convirtió en una palabra chicle que la Nueva Clase utiliza como un revulsivo para deslegitimar todo lo que detesta. El “populismo” tiene mala prensa entre las élites porque cubre todo lo que execran y temen más: el regreso de las “clases peligrosas”. Más claramente: el despertar de los pueblos decididos a perpetuar sus valores, su modo de vida y su propia sociabilidad.
No es una coincidencia si la crítica del populismo se transforma muy rápidamente en crítica del pueblo, representado actualmente como una masa de paletos ignorantes. El proletario cuya dignidad (“pobre pero digno”), decencia y honestidad se alababa hace poco, se ha convertido en los en los medios de comunicación en una mezcla de Bitru y Dupont-Lajoie [ Nota del traductor: Bitru es un personaje que representa al “francés común” en una novela, y Dupont-Lajoie fue una película realizada en 1975 con una descripción muy crítica del francés común ], inculto, malvado, xenófobo y retrógrado, que se empeña obstinadamente en no confiar en “los que saben” y que jamás vota como queremos que lo haga. Se entiende así que la gente no sabe lo que quiere, o que cuando hace saber que quiere algo, no debe tenerse en cuenta. “¡Estamos hartos del pueblo!”, eructó Daniel Cohn-Bendit al día siguiente del Brexit. Diciendo así en voz alta lo que otros pensaban en silencio.
Breizh-info.com: El fin de la ideología estuvo marcado por olas “populistas” en Europa, pero también y sobre todo por el advenimiento de una forma de desencantamiento del mundo, dominado en gran parte hoy por las potencias económicas a través de la publicidad y la globalización. A partir del momento en que el hijo de un militante comunista estalinista arraigado en su suburbio rojo se convirtió en un trotamundos que trabajaba para diferentes firmas internacionales y se sentía como en casa en todas partes, ¿cómo recrear mañana – y alrededor de qué – una esperanza colectiva para los pueblos? Y esto de otra forma que halagando ciertos bajos instintos…
Alain de Benoist: una observación en primer lugar: el desencantamiento del mundo, cuyas raíces están lejos de ser contemporáneas, no señala el “fin de las ideologías”, una expresión de moda pero que estrictamente no significa nada, precisamente porque ninguna sociedad puede existir sin someterse a la influencia de una ideología dominante.
Hoy vivimos en la ideología de la mercancía, es decir, en una era donde el imaginario simbólico ha sido colonizado ampliamente por los valores mercantiles (calculabilidad, rentabilidad, ganancia, etc.). La desconexión social, el tecnomorfismo, el surgimiento del individualismo narcisista, en conjunción con este “fetichismo de la mercancía” (Karl Marx) para transformar al individuo en un “sujeto autómata” que tiene cada vez más una relación con sus semejantes calcada a la relación con las cosas.
La respuesta a la pregunta que ustedes plantean depende precisamente de la posibilidad de abandonar esta ideología de la mercancía, consecuencia lógica de la antropología liberal, que hace del hombre un ser egoísta que busca permanentemente maximizar su mejor interés material y privado. Eso implica rehabilitar la esfera pública en relación con la esfera privada y recrear las condiciones para el surgimiento de un proyecto colectivo.
Suelo decir que en la expresión “bien común”, la palabra que más cuenta es la segunda. El papel de la política es en efecto el de producir lo común. Este común, que es la condición del verdadero “vivir juntos” – expresión hoy sacrificada para darle un sentido totalmente opuesto al suyo-, necesariamente echa raíces en los valores compartidos, formados por la historia y por la cultura, y en los cuales podría reconocerse vuestro “hijo de militante comunista estalinista” tanto como un joven francés tentado por el exotismo yihadista.
Pero está claro que estamos lejos de eso, en una sociedad que no quiere conocer mas que a individuos, que ha olvidado que las razones para vivir y las razones para morir son las mismas, y que se imagina que el vínculo social se reduce al contrato jurídico y al intercambio mercantil .
Breizh-info.com: ¿De qué forma podría surgir este “momento populista” que evoca?
Alain de Benoist: Bajo muchas formas diferentes, por supuesto, porque el populismo no es una ideología (lo que explica su carácter polimórfico).
Durante el año 2016 solo, un representante del Movimiento Cinco Estrellas fue elegido al frente de la alcaldía de Roma, Inglaterra abandonó la Unión Europea, el FPÖ austriaco estuvo a punto de la elección de uno de sus representantes a la presidencia de la república, el Frente Nacional superó el 40% en algunas elecciones locales, Podemos se apoderó de loa ayuntamientos de Madrid y Barcelona, ​​Alternativa por Alemania (AfD) confirmó su ascenso en Alemania, Viktor Orban se impuso en el seno del grupo de Visegrado, Donald Trump fue elegido en los Estados Unidos, Matteo Renzi debió abandonar la presidencia del Consejo en Italia, Hollande y Valls, Juppé y Sarkozy han sido (o están en proceso de ser) devueltos a sus hogares.
Así que el “momento populista” no es pues una eventualidad: ya está aquí. Pero todavía es demasiado pronto para elaborar el balance que, cuando llegue el momento, será necesariamente contrastado.
Breizh-info.com: ¿Hay comparaciones históricas o geográficas que pudiera usted hacer con el escenario que se está desarrollando en Europa hoy?
Alain de Benoist: verdaderamente no. Podemos hacer comparaciones con los populismos de finales del siglo XIX (el movimiento naródnik en Rusia, el de los granjeros grangers en los Estados Unidos) o en Francia, con el movimiento boulangiste.
También podríamos evocar el final de la República de Weimar. Pero creo que eso no nos llevaría muy lejos. La historia no sirve de nuevo los mismos platos, como dijo Céline, y las comparaciones históricas, por interesantes que puedan ser, encuentran rápidamente sus límites. Es mejor considerar que la historia está siempre abierta, especialmente cuando vemos el gran ciclo de la modernidad cerrándose en estos momentos.
Los contornos de un mundo que hemos conocido, incluso a veces amado, se disipan ante nuestros ojos, mientras que el mundo por venir sigue siendo nebuloso. El populismo participa en esta transición en su camino. Queda por saber lo que esto puede anunciar.
Breizh-info.com: Alain de Benoist, ¿cuál es su receta para lograr producir tantas obras, artículos, resúmenes, fuentes y argumentos, con esta frecuencia?
Alain de Benoist: No hay receta. Para mí, como para todo el mundo, los días son sólo de veinticuatro horas! Trato sólo de organizarme bien y no perder mi tiempo en actividades mundanas y discusiones inútiles.
Trabajo 70 horas a la semana, lo que me ha permitido publicar hasta ahora un poco más de 100 libros, 2000 artículos y 600 entrevistas (¡esta será la 638!). No obtengo ninguna gloria en particular: la cantidad no es garantía la calidad, ¡y no concedo ningún valor moral al trabajo!
Breizh-info.com: ¿ cuáles son las últimas obras que ha leído, apreciado, y que recomendaría a nuestros lectores?
Alain de Benoist: Primero el libro de Jean Vioulac, Science et révolution (PUF), que constituye una aproximación innovadora ala cuestión de la técnica a la luz del pensamiento fenomenológico de Husserl, luego la pequeña obra de Ludwig Klages, L’homme et la Terre, que data de 1913 y acaba de ser traducida en francés (por RN Editions).
En otro campo: la reedición, a las ediciones bretonas Yoran Embanner, de tres estudios importantes de Françoise Le Roux y Christian-J. Guyonvarc’h: La civilisation celtique, Les fêtes celtiques y La souveraineté guerrière de l’Irlande.
(Entrevista realizada por Yann Vallerie). http://www.breizh-info.com/2017/02/20/62496/alain-de-benoist-populisme-droite-gauche-fini-monde-moderne
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2017.02.13 01:56 tuga2 [Pre-Match Thread] Liga dos Campeões 2016/2017, Oitavos-de-Final: SL Benfica vs. Borussia Dortmund

Sport Lisboa e Benfica vs. Borussia Dortmund

Liga dos Campeões 2016/2017, Oitavos-de-Final

Transmissão

Antevisão

  • [[Vídeo] Conferência de imprensa de Rui Vitória de antevisão (YouTube)]()

Histórico

  • Forma do SL Benfica: V-D-D-V-V
  • Forma do Borussia Dortmund: V-E-V-E-D
  • Este é o 3.º jogo oficial entre estas duas equipas.
  • Globalmente, o SL Benfica venceu 1 jogos (50%), empatou 0 (0%) e perdeu 1 (50%).
  • No que tange ao aspeto ofensivo, marcou 2 golos (1,00 por jogo) e sofreu 6 (3,00 por jogo).
  • O SL Benfica conseguiu marcar em 50% dos jogos (1) e sofreu pelo menos um golo em 100% deles (2).
  • A última vitória do SL Benfica, condição de visitado, por duas bolas a uma, data de 06-11-1963, em jogo a contar para a 1.ª mão da segunda ronda da Taça dos Campeões 1963/1964. António Simões, [abriu aos 46'](), Reinhold Wosab [empatou aos 54'](), e Eusébio recuperou a vantagem [aos 67'].
  • Nesse jogo, o SL Benfica alinhou com: Costa Pereira; Raúl Machado, Luciano, Mário Coluna, Fernando Cruz; Cavém, António Simões, Santana; Eusébio, Serafim e José Augusto.
  • Assista [aqui ao resumo dessa partida]().

Lista de Convocados

Guarda-redes – Ederson e Júlio César;
Defesas – Luisão, Lindelof, Jardel, André Almeida, Nélson Semedo, Eliseu e Pedro Pereira;
Médios – Fejsa, Samaris, Filipe Augusto, André Horta, Carrillo, Pizzi, Salvio, Cervi e Rafa;
Avançados – Raúl, Jonas e Mitroglou.

Boletim Clínico

XI Provável

Raul
F.Cervi Pizzi André Horta Rafa Silva
Fejsa
Eliseu Victor Luisão Nelson
Ederson

Talking Points

  • Andrija Živković está castigado, abrindo caminho à entrada de Rafa. Acha que o médio (thanks KingNestor) está à altura da tarefa?
  • Raul esteve muito tempo de fora e está de volta à competição. Acha que será a alternativa à Mitroglou?
  • Que jogador terá que fazer acontecer, superar-se a si próprio e embalar a equipa para a vitória?
  • Que jogador ou aspeto do jogo do adversário constitui-se como a maior ameaça para o SL Benfica?
  • Qual é o seu onze inicial, estrutura e dinâmicas preferidos para este jogo?
  • Qual é a sua previsão sobre o resultado final e os marcadores?
submitted by tuga2 to benfica [link] [comments]


2017.02.09 20:19 DFW_Explorer Things To Do! 2/9/17 - 2/16/17

Sorry I'm a bit late, this week is kickin' my ass! Anyone else feel like that?
As always, if you know about an event I've missed please share the info in the comments below. If you have an event for a date further out than this week, please PM me the details and I'll add it to my data sheet. Everything gets posted here and at www.dfwexplorer.com as well.
OPENING THIS WEEK
Northside Hollow at Amphibian Stage Productions, February 10 - March 5.
STOMP! at Music Hall @ Fair Park, February 14 - 19.
An American in Paris at Bass Hall, February 14 - 19.
THIS WEEKEND
Dirty Dancing is the midnight movie at the Inwood Theater in Dallas, February 10 - 11.
‘Wayne’s World - 25th Anniversary’ at Texas Theater, February 9 - 11.
Flaming Cocktails Date Night at Vetro Art Glass in Grapevine, February 10, 11, and 14th.
Paul Taylor Dance Company at the Eisemann Center, February 10 - 11.
Collin County Home and Garden Show at the Allen Event Center, February 10 - 11.
THURSDAY FEBRUARY 9TH
Off The Wall: Shot Through The Heart at the Dallas Museum of Art.
‘Breakfast at Tiffany’s at the Majestic Theater.
Harry Potter Costume Party at an as yet unnamed location in Dallas.
Nasher Now: Richard Serra at the Nasher Sculpture Center.
Dallas Vegan Drinks February at Barcadia Dallas.
FRIDAY FEBRUARY 10TH
The Comedy Get Down at the American Airlines Center.
TEXAS PSY at The Nines iin Deep Ellum.
Full Moon Dreaming Circle at the Cosmic Crow Collective in Arlington.
Ultimate Pong Tournament at The Nodding Donkey in Dallas.
Simon Tolkien and Amor Towles at the Dallas Museum of Art.
SATURDAY FEBRUARY 11TH
LAST CHANCE The Vagina Monologues at Art Centre Theatre, February 3 - 11.
LAST CHANCE Rarely Seen: Photographs of the Extraordinary at the Irving Arts Center, through February 11.
Assassination City Roller Derby Season Opener at Thunderbird Roller Rink in Plano.
Pop-Up Flamenco Class at the Latino Cultural Center in Dallas.
Love is in the Air at the Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park.
360 Speaker Series: Off the Pedestal at the Nasher Sculpture Center.
Zombies Wanted! Filming with Mya in Deep Ellum.
Safe Conversations 360 at Fair Park.
Victorian Valentines Card Making at Nash Farm in Grapevine.
Little D Valentine’s Market at Bishop Arts Lofts.
Mimosa Walk - Valentine’s Edition in Deep Ellum.
A Rockin’ Afternoon with ROCK DOG at Mutts Canine Cantina in Dallas.
Music and Masterpieces at the Dallas Museum of Art, with the Dallas Opera.
Valentine’s Dinner at the Checkered Past Winery in Dallas.
Pirates on the Prairie VI at Uptown Theater in Grand Prairie.
Sweetheart Safari Dinner and Tour at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center.
Dashboard Confessional at House of Blues Dallas.
1980’s Valentine’s Prom at Double Wide.
SUNDAY FEBRUARY 12TH
LAST CHANCE Hedwig and the Angry Inch at the Winspear Opera House, February 7 - 12.
LAST CHANCE ‘An American In Paris’ at the Music Hall at Fair Park, January 31 - February 12.
LAST CHANCE ‘Rogue One’ at the Omni IMAX theater at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, through February 12.
LAST CHANCE I Love You, You’re Perfect, Now Change! at Theater Three, December 29 - February 12.
LAST CHANCE Pablo Picasso: Ceramics at the Arlington Museum of Art, through February 12.
LAST CHANCE Clay Between Two Seas: From the Abbasid Court to Puebla de Los Angeles exhibition at the Crow Collection of Asian Art, Sept 17 - Feb 12.
Valentine’s 5K with the Fort Worth Runner’s Club.
Sweetheart Swap Meet at Clyde James Cycles in Haltom City.
Valentine’s Brunch at Fort Worth Food Park.
Fort Worth Bikers Lifestyle Expo and Swap Meet at Will Rogers Memorial Center.
Donut & Beer Pairing Flight-Valentine’s Edition at LUCK at Trinity Groves.
Compassion Now at the Crow Collection of Asian Art.
Intro to Watercolor Workshop: Valentine Hearts at North Haven Gardens.
Sunday Night Cinema: Rick and Morty Season 2 at Braindead Brewing in Dallas.
Happy Feet Dance School: Chinese New Year at the Eisemann Center.
Ultra-Seeing Film: Entrendre ce que l’on voit at the Nasher Sculpture Center.
TUESDAY FEBRUARY 14TH
Cupid Visits the Rose Chapel in Fort Worth to celebrate marriages and vow renewals.
Valentine’s Dinner at the Checkered Past Winery in Dallas.
Pop & Go Weddings at Best Western Premier Crown Chase Inn & Suites in Denton.
DFM Valentine’s Dinner at the Dallas Farmer’s Market with Rex’s Seafood.
Hearts and Horns at the Meyerson Symphony Center.
‘Somewhere in Time’ movie screening at The Magnolia Theater in Dallas.
Singapore Slingers Sweethearts Revue at Pocket Sandwich Theater.
‘Casablanca’ at the Angelika Film Center in Dallas.
Neil Degrasse Tyson: The Cosmic Perspective at the Winspear Opera House with the #HearHere series.
Classic Open Mic Night at Buzzbrews Kitchen.
Valentine’s Day Freak-A-Thon at Club Dada.
‘The Umbrellas of Cherbourg at Texas Theater.
WEDNESDAY FEBRUARY 15TH
Food in Fashion at 3015 at Trinity Groves.
David Willingham Project at Sundown At Granada.
QueerBomb 2017 Planning Kickoff Meeting at Buzzbrews Kitchen.
Chris Bohjalian & Katie Kitamura at the Dallas Museum of Art.
THURSDAY FEBRUARY 16TH
Disenchanted! at the Eisemann Center, February 16 - 19.
National Theatre Live: Saint Joan at the Angelika Film Center in Dallas.
Winos for Rhinos at D’Vine Wine in Granbury.
Craig Ferguson at the Winspear Opera House.
ONGOING EVENTS
‘Dinosaurs Alive!’ at the Omni IMAX at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, through February 16.
‘Mysteries of China’ at the Omni IMAX at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, through February 16.
‘Dolphins’ at the Omni IMAX at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, through February 16.
Tomorrow is Forever - The Spy Melodrama at Pocket Sandwich Theater, through February 18.
Our Town at The Core Theatre, January 27 - February 19.
‘The Christians’ at the Kalita Humphrey’s Theater, January 26 - February 19.
Distant Relatives, a Collaborative Exhibit on the African Diaspora at the South Dallas Cultural Center, January 20 - February 25.
‘Thurgood’ at Jubliee Theater, January 27 - February 26.
Penguin Days at the Dallas Zoo, December 1 - February 28.
Concentrations 60: Lucie Stahl at the Dallas Museum of Art, through March 12..
Art and Nature in the Middle Ages at the Dallas Museum of Art, December 4 - March 19.
Richard Serra: Prints at the Nasher Sculpture Center, January 28 - April 30.
Polly Smith: A Texas Journey at Fair Park with the Dallas Historical Society, February 1 - May 27.
Passages in Modern Art: 1946-1996 at the Dallas Museum of Art, through May 28.
the Wittgenstein Vitrine at the Dallas Museum of Art, through May 28.
Hidden Treasures: Celebrating 75 Years at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, through September 1.
Texas Under Six Flags exhibit at the Dallas Historical Society, through September 1.
Waxed: Batik from Java at the Dallas Museum of Art, through September 10.
RECURRING EVENTS/COOL THINGS AROUND TOWN
Ten Bells Tavern hosts pub quizzes every other Wednesday at their location in Oak Cliff/Bishop Arts.
Kwest, a city exploration app is available for Denton, Grapevine, Bishop Arts, Uptown, and the Zoo.
Dallas Games Marathon in Plano every Thursday
Feed The City, hosted by Volunteer North Dallas at Gordon Biersch in Plano, is a public effort to make sandwiches/meals for the homeless. Every first Saturday at 8.30am.
West 7th Farmers Market on Crockett Street in Fort Worth, every Thursday.
Classical Open Mic at Buzzbrews weekly.
The Dallas Swing Dance Society will host lessons and dances on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Saturdays of the month.
Geeks Who Drink host trivia at various places and locations throughout the Metroplex, including Alamo Drafthouse on Mondays, Cedar Springs Tap House Tuesday at 7, and Bryan Street Tavern Wednesday at 8.
Free Improv Jam Session and Open Mic Night every Tuesday at the Dallas Comedy House, among various other fun activities weekly.
Various shows at the Planetarium at UT Arlington.
Various classes are offered at the Dallas Arboretum weekly, everything from silk screening to gardening information to fused glass making.
Pawnee Bill's Wild West Show every weekend at the Stockyards.
Parkour In the Park has free classes every Saturday at the Water Gardens in Fort Worth, Reverchon Park in Dallas, or Robert E. Lee Park in Dallas.
Every Tuesday is Open Mic Night at the Free Man in Deep Ellum.
At Alamo Drafthouse in Richardson every Sunday is Board Game Night and Tuesdays are Tiki Bingo Night.
Stockyards Rodeo every Friday and Saturday night at 8pm in the Stockyards.
Every Saturday is the Coppell Farmers Market in Old Town Coppell.
Classical Open Mic at BuzzBrews in Dallas every Tuesday.
Tuesday Tease weekly at Sue Ellen’s Dallas.
Trinity Hall has lots of weekly things, like Pub Trivia on Sundays and Texas Hold ‘Em on Mondays.
Book a trapeze class at Skyline Trapeze in Dallas CLOSED FOR THE WINTER SEASON.
Amazing Scavenger Hunt Adventures let you tour Dallas while doing an Amazing Race style scavenger hunt on your smart phone.
There are also various painting places in the area, here’s a short list of some companies (thanks to u/Cheshix for this info!) Art in the Vine Ardor Studio Carefree Colors Paint Nite Painting with a Twist Painting with Influence Paint Party Express Pinot's Palette Purple Glaze Sip-N-Doodle
Have a lovely week and Happy Valentine's to all!
submitted by DFW_Explorer to Dallas [link] [comments]


2016.12.22 00:40 chrjstianzh [Serio] Me invitaron a una entrevista para Amazon en Córdoba.

Hoy abrí LinkedIn como todos los días y me encuentro con el siguiente invoice:
Greetings Christian,
Un equipo de desarrolladores y managers de Amazon Web Services (AWS) va a estar en Córdoba, la semana del 13 al 17 de Febrero para entrevistar desarrolladores (SDE) y managers (SDM) con una fuerte orientación al diseño de software y programación orientada a objetos y con mas de 5 años de experiencia.
Esta oportunidad requiere fluidez en el ingles y también la posibilidad de reubicarse a alguno nuestros centros de desarrollo en Seattle, USA; Vancouver, Canada; o Berlin, Alemania. Amazon ofrece paquetes de relocación atractivos y también realiza el esponsoreo de la visa de trabajo.
En AWS, los desarrolladores definen y trabajan en soluciones completas de forma independiente, interactuando con otros equipos y escalando nuestros servicios al ritmo del exponencial crecimiento de negocios.
Si te interesa en participar de la entrevista y sumarte a proyectos y equipos innovadores y desafiantes, adjuntame tu CV en este mensaje o si tenés consultas no dudes en contactarme.
Era un poco más largo pero lo recorté porque tl;dr.
Qué tan fake puede ser esto? Soy desarrollador Java y me interesa pero me da como un poquito de desconfianza, y googleé pero no aparece nada por el estilo.
A alguien le llegó algo parecido?
EDIT: Mandé CV y me contestó con un link a amazon.jobs con detalle. Es para un Software Engineer en Vancouver, Canadá. Lo que piden es ésto:
· 3+ years of software development experience
· Fluency with Java, C/C++, or C#
· In-depth knowledge of computer science, data structures and algorithms
· Strong problem solving ability and object-oriented design skills
· Bachelor’s degree (or higher) in Computer Science or a related discipline
· Proactivity, leadership and team work.
Si a alguien le interesa que me avise, yo paso.
submitted by chrjstianzh to argentina [link] [comments]


2016.12.07 16:55 eventbot What's happening around town (Wed, Dec 7th - Tue, Dec 13th)

Oklahoma City's event list.

Ongoing

  • A Christmas Carol (Plaza District) Thru Sat, Dec 24th Start Time: 12:30pm A spectacular new Oklahoma holiday tradition returns with Lyric Theatre's production of the Charles Dickens classic,…
  • Christmas in the Park (Yukon City Park, Freedom Trail Park & Chisholm Trail Park - Yukon) Thru Sat, Dec 31st Yukon's Christmas in the Park offers a beautiful lighted drive through three interconnecting parks. Yukon's…
  • Devon Ice Rink Thru Sun, Jan 29th The Devon Ice Rink returns for its seventh season in the Myriad Botanical Gardens this November through the end of…
  • Downs Family Christmas Lights (Down's Family Christmas Light Ministry - Norman) Thru Sun, Jan 1st The Downs Family Christmas Lights in Norman is one of the most spectacular light displays at a private residence in…
  • Chickasha Festival of Light (Shannon Springs Park - Chickasha) Thru Sat, Dec 31st The Chickasha Festival of Light has been recognized as one of the top ten holiday light shows in the…
  • Edmond Historic Tours (Downtown - Edmond) Thru Sat, Dec 31st Join experts with the Edmond Historic Preservation Trust and learn something new with a walking tour of historic…
  • Midwest City Holiday Lights Spectacular (Joe Barnes Regional Park - Midwest City) Thru Fri, Dec 30th Celebrate the magic of the season as over one million lights transform Joe B. Barnes Regional Park into a twinkling…
  • Holiday Pop-Up Shops Thru Thu, Dec 22nd Venture over to Midtown in Oklahoma City during the winter holidays, and gaze in wonder at the geodesic dome city…
  • in December (Downtown) Thru Mon, Jan 2nd Spend your holidays experiencing fun activities as downtown Oklahoma City is turned into a winter wonderland during the…
  • Jane Austen's Christmas Cracker! (Civic Center Music Hall) Thru Sat, Dec 17th ABSOLUTELY NO LATE SEATING.
  • The Mystery Lights (Journey Church - Norman) Thru Fri, Dec 30th Visit Journey Church in Norman to see a stunning Christmas Light Display. During the month of December, the church is…
  • Kingfisher Nights (Kingifhser City Park - Kingfisher) Thru Fri, Dec 30th Millions of lights are setting historic Kingfisher Park ablaze in the city of Kingfisher. Every evening from the…
  • North Pole Adventure (Plaza Mayor At The Crossroads) Thru Sat, Dec 24th Experience the thrill of North Pole right in the heart of Oklahoma City. North Pole Adventure is a one-of-a-kind…
  • Edmond Outdoor Ice Rink (Mitch Park - Edmond) Thru Sun, Jan 8th Enjoy holiday ice skating in Mitch Park at the Edmond Outdoor Ice Rink. Glide around the 117ft. x 56ft.…
  • PAMBE Ghana Global Market Thru Sat, Dec 24th PAMBE Ghana's Global Market features some of the most unusual, standout gifts in the Oklahoma City metro. This…
  • 🎨 Power & Prestige Children's Gallery (National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum) Thru Sun, May 14th Held in conjunction with the Power & Prestige: Headdresses of the American Plains exhibition, the Power &…
  • Red Earth Treefest (Red Earth Art Center) Thru Fri, Jan 13th Celebrate the Christmas season at Oklahoma City's Red Earth Art Center during the fun and festive Red Earth…
  • 🎭 A Territorial Christmas Carol (Pollard Theatre - Guthrie) Thru Fri, Dec 23rd Get in the holiday spirit at the historic Pollard Theatre in Guthrie with "A Territorial Christmas…
  • A Tuna Christmas (Civic Center Music Hall) Thru Sun, Dec 18th The Canterbury Choral Society's annual Christmas show is a beloved and anticipated holiday tradition in Oklahoma…
  • Victorian Walk (Historic Guthrie - Guthrie) Thru Sat, Dec 31st Go back in time with a close-up view of Guthrie's historic architecture on the Victorian Homes Tour. The…

Wednesday, Dec 7th

  • 🎓 2nd Grade Class Visit (Noble Public Library - Noble) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 1:00pm Librarian visits to the 2nd grade classes at Hubbard. The librarian spends an hour reading books and making crafts based on a monthly theme. The following classes are visited: Grayson, Nash, Vaughn, Whitehead, Jonas, Tarp, Fuchs, Webster, Williams
  • 🎨 Acrylic Paintings by Rebecca Mannschreck (50 Penn Art Gallery) Day 1 of 2 Acrylic Paintings by Rebecca Mannschreck, through December 31st. 50 Penn Place Art Gallery, 1900 NW Expressway. There will be an opening reception at 6 p.m. Friday (November 11th) 848-5567
  • 🎓 Adam Davies snd Ed Brown discuss cryptids (Anomalist Books and Brews - Lexington) Start Time: 5:00pm Tickets for sale on eventbrite
  • Annual Fall Show (The Studio Gallery) Day 1 of 2 Annual Fall Show, Nov 17-April 30, The Studio Gallery, 2646 W Britton. There will be an opening reception at 5 p.m. Nov. 17, 752-2642
  • 🍴 Anthem Drown Night! (HiLo Club) Our local friends at Anthem Brewing Co. have some great beers! Every Wednesday night from 9pm to close enjoy $8 Drown Night! Their Power Pils will be flowing!
  • 🎓 Author Visit: Mark Greaney (Norman Public Library - Norman) Start Time: 7:00pm Mark Greaney has a degree in international relations and political science. He is the author of Commander in Chief, Full Force and Effect, and Support and Defend. With Tom Clancy he coauthored Locked On, Threat Vector, and Command Authority. He has written five books in his own Gray Man series: The Gray Man, On Target, Ballistic, Dead Eye, and…
  • Barrel Racing Futurity World Championship (Oklahoma State Fair Park) Thru Sat, Dec 10th The annual Barrel Racing Futurity World Championships come to Oklahoma State Fair Park. Put on by the Barrel Futurities…
  • Berwanger (89th Street Collective) Start Time: 7:30pm
  • 🎓 BUMP: Building Understanding of Maternity & Pregnancy (Samis Center at OU Children's Hospital) Start Time: 5:30pm
  • Norman Central -Ho-Ho-Holiday Movie Trivia (Norman Public Library - Norman) Start Time: 7:00pm Did your family fly to Paris and leave you home alone? Then come to our trivia night featuring questions about your favorite holiday movies and tv specials! All that time spent watching the 24-hour marathon of A Christmas Story will pay off. Participants can choose to play individually or on teams of up to 5 people. There will be prizes for the…
  • Child Labor in Oklahoma: Photographs by Lewis Hine, 1916–1917 (Oklahoma History Center) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 10:00am Child Labor in Oklahoma: Photographs by Lewis Hine, 1916–1917 is a snapshot of images by Lewis Hine whose photography captured the soul of the child laborer in north America in the early 1900s. Although Hine focused on major cities, he did take brief trips to other parts of the country to document child labor, including Oklahoma. Hine…
  • 😂 Comedy to the rescue (Loony Bin Comedy Club)
  • "Cowboy Crossing 2016" featuring Cowboy Artists of America (CAA) 51st Annual Sale & Exhibition and the Traditional Cowboy Arts A (Western Heritage Museum) Day 1 of 2 Opening Weekend October 13 - 15, 2016
    Featuring the Cowboy Artists of America (CAA) 51st Annual Sale & Exhibition and the Traditional Cowboy Arts Association (TCAA) 18th Annual Exhibition & Sale.
    In one of the most significant happenings to hit the world of fine art, the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum hosts opening weekend…
  • Del City Kiwanis Club (Rose State College - Midwest City)
  • Eamonn McCrystal / Chloe Agnew (OCCC Visual and Performing Arts Center) Emmy Award Winning Irish Tenor, Eamonn McCrystal & your favorite Celtic woman Chloë Agnew, join forces for an exclusive North American tour celebrating Irish culture, great music and Christmas. Don’t miss their one-night only performance in OKC. Enter Promo Code IRELAND for 15% off tickets.
  • 🎨 Exhibtion: Lowell Ellsworth Smith: My Theology of Painting (Western Heritage Museum) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 10:00am **Lowell Ellsworth Smith: My Theology of Painting **
    Ohio watercolorist and Prix de West winner, Lowell Ellsworth Smith (1924-2011), once referenced his *theology of painting *during an interview. Short but meaningful, the phrase summarized his relationship with art. It was more than a hobby or pastime. More than a career. It was the lens…
  • Family Play Time/ La hora de jugar en familia (Noble Public Library - Noble) Start Time: 10:30am Join us for a bilingual family play program for babies and children under 5 years of age. ¡Aprendan y jueguen todos juntos! Para bebés y niños hasta 5 años de edad con las personas que los cuidan.
  • Hard Candy Christmas - Sunny Sweeney, Brennen Leigh, Courtney Patton, Jamie Lin Wilson (The Blue Door) Start Time: 8:00pm
  • Holiday Carousel (Myriad Botanical Gardens) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 11:00am
  • 🎭 Intro to Belly Dancing (Moore Public Library - Moore) Start Time: 6:00pm Pamela Doty of the Beledi Magic Dance Company will lead a beginner's course in belly dancing! Come and have a great time learning this ancient and beautiful art. Registration required. Please wear comfortable clothing and shoes. All participants will need to sign the group waiver before the class begins.
  • It's a Wonderful Life (Oklahoma City University) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 8:00am Back by popular demand, this beloved American holiday film classic comes to captivating life as a live 1940s radio broadcast. With the help of an ensemble that brings a few dozen characters to the stage, the story of idealistic George Bailey unfolds as he considers ending his life one fateful Christmas Eve. This uplifting and endearing classic…
  • Lapsit Story Time (Moore Public Library - Moore) Start Time: 10:00am Each week, caregivers and their children sit together to enjoy developmentally appropriate stories, songs, fingerplays and bubbles. For babies 24 months and younger accompanied by an adult. For more information, call the Moore Public Library at 405-793-4347. For updates on special events and more, be sure to check the Website, like us on…
  • NORTH POLE ADVENTURE - 2016 Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 5:30pm
  • Oklahoma Sooners Mens Basketball (The Lloyd Noble Center - Norman) Start Time: 7:00pm
  • Picturing Indian Territory, 1819-1907 Rec (Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art - Norman) Art Exhibition Exploring Oklahoma History Opens Oct. 6 at OU
    NORMAN, Okla. – Oklahoma history comes to life through paintings, lithographs, drawings and other media in a new exhibition at the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art on the University of Oklahoma Norman campus. Picturing Indian Territory, 1819-1907 opens with a public, complimentary…
  • Reading Wednesdays (St. Paul's Cathedral) Start Time: 6:00pm Wednesday Night Live
    For Pre-School through Adults
    Begins September 7 from 5:50-8:14 p.m.
    Family Time (meal) from 5:50-6:30 p.m.
    Bible Study in small groups
    Recreation/Games
    Family Worship
    Register online at www.stpaulsokc.com under the Youth tab or bring during office hours
    FREE events for everyone.
    Those who register receive a…
  • Secret Santa Toy Drive (Mattress Firm) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 10:00am All Mattress Firm stores in Oklahoma City are hosting a toy drive, the sixth of Mattress Firm Foster Kids’ 2016 donation drives benefitting local foster youth and families. Through Sunday, Dec. 18, 2016 during normal store hours, Mattress Firm will accept new toys and monetary contributions to spread holiday cheer for foster children and…
  • 😂 Trixx (Loony Bin Comedy Club) Thru Sat, Dec 10th
  • Walking in a Winter Wonderland (Mount St Mary Catholic High School) Start Time: 7:00pm Mount St Mary Catholic High School Music Department Presents Walking in a Winter Wonderland a Christmas Concert

Thursday, Dec 8th

  • 🎓 2nd Grade Class Visit (Noble Public Library - Noble) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 1:00pm Librarian visits to the 2nd grade classes at Hubbard. The librarian spends an hour reading books and making crafts based on a monthly theme. The following classes are visited: Grayson, Nash, Vaughn, Whitehead, Jonas, Tarp, Fuchs, Webster, Williams
  • 6X6 on 16th Group Art Show (District House) Day 1 of 2 Start Time: 6:00pm We're excited to announce our 6x6 on 16th Group Art Show! During December's LIVE on the Plaza and the Thursday night before, work by artists of all skillsets done on 6in x 6in canvas will be available fpr viewing and for sale at District House.
    Wanting to submit artwork for the show? Here's what you need to know -
    • All artwork submitted to…
  • 🎨 Acrylic Paintings by Rebecca Mannschreck (50 Penn Art Gallery) Day 2 of 2 Acrylic Paintings by Rebecca Mannschreck, through December 31st. 50 Penn Place Art Gallery, 1900 NW Expressway. There will be an opening reception at 6 p.m. Friday (November 11th) 848-5567
  • Annual Fall Show (The Studio Gallery) Day 2 of 2 Annual Fall Show, Nov 17-April 30, The Studio Gallery, 2646 W Britton. There will be an opening reception at 5 p.m. Nov. 17, 752-2642
  • ASK (After School Kids) Prek-2nd Painting (Blanchard Library - Blanchard) Start Time: 3:45pm ASK (After School Kids) for grades Pre-K through 2nd. A book will be read to the children. December is a hands-on creative painting activity which the children will get to take home. Registration Required. All Supplies will be provided.
  • Barrel Racing Futurity World Championship (Oklahoma State Fair Park) Thru Sat, Dec 10th The annual Barrel Racing Futurity World Championships come to Oklahoma State Fair Park. Put on by the Barrel Futurities…
  • Capsize (89th Street Collective) Start Time: 7:00pm
  • Norman Central -Thursday Night Page Turners book discussion group (Norman Public Library - Norman) Start Time: 7:00pm Come talk books with the Thursday Night Page Turners book discussion group! All are welcome. Meets the second Thursday of every month at 7 p.m. Copies of the book are available at the Information Services Desk in the center of the library.
  • 🍴 Yukon Chamber of Commerce Membership Luncheon (YPS Admin. Bldg - Yukon) Start Time: 11:30am
  • Child Labor in Oklahoma: Photographs by Lewis Hine, 1916–1917 (Oklahoma History Center) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 10:00am Child Labor in Oklahoma: Photographs by Lewis Hine, 1916–1917 is a snapshot of images by Lewis Hine whose photography captured the soul of the child laborer in north America in the early 1900s. Although Hine focused on major cities, he did take brief trips to other parts of the country to document child labor, including Oklahoma. Hine…
  • Cover to Cover (Noble Public Library - Noble) Start Time: 1:00pm Join us for thoughtful discussions and great food with a good book. This month: Sweet Forgiveness by Lori Nelson Spielman.
  • "Cowboy Crossing 2016" featuring Cowboy Artists of America (CAA) 51st Annual Sale & Exhibition and the Traditional Cowboy Arts A (Western Heritage Museum) Day 2 of 2 Opening Weekend October 13 - 15, 2016
    Featuring the Cowboy Artists of America (CAA) 51st Annual Sale & Exhibition and the Traditional Cowboy Arts Association (TCAA) 18th Annual Exhibition & Sale.
    In one of the most significant happenings to hit the world of fine art, the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum hosts opening weekend…
  • 🎭 Dean Martin's Merry, Merry, Merry, Merry Christmas (The Yellow Rose Dinner Theatre - Moore) Start Time: 6:30pm THE YELLOW ROSE DINNER THEATRE PRESENTS
    DEAN MARTIN'S MERRY, MERRY, MERRY, MERRY CHRISTMAS THURSDAYS - SUNDAYS NOVEMBER 25TH - DECEMBER 18TH
    STARRING: MICHAEL COOPER AS DEAN MARTIN, JORDAN VANOVER AS JERRY LEWIS, GARY PARKS AS JIMMY DURANTE, AND TASHA SANDERS
    DINNER BEGINS AT 6:30 PM PRE-SHOW AT 7:00 PM MAIN SHOW AT 7:30 PM
    YELLOW ROSE…
  • 🎨 Drink and Draw (Brass Bell Studios) Start Time: 8:00pm Drink & Draw is hosted every Thursday at either Brass Bell Studios, The Okay See, or Tree & Leaf from 8-11pm.
    Here is the weekly schedule:
    1st Thursday: The Okay See
    2nd Thursday: Brass Bell Studios
    3rd - 4th - 5th Thursdays: Tree & Leaf
    Drink & Draw is open to anyone that wants to attend. While consuming alcohol is welcome, it…
  • 🎓 English as a Second Language Class (Purcell Public Library - Purcell) Start Time: 11:00am English as a Second Language class. All materials are provided.
  • Evin Brady (Wormy Dog Saloon)
  • 🎨 Exhibtion: Lowell Ellsworth Smith: My Theology of Painting (Western Heritage Museum) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 10:00am **Lowell Ellsworth Smith: My Theology of Painting **
    Ohio watercolorist and Prix de West winner, Lowell Ellsworth Smith (1924-2011), once referenced his *theology of painting *during an interview. Short but meaningful, the phrase summarized his relationship with art. It was more than a hobby or pastime. More than a career. It was the lens…
  • Family Night Skate (Skate Galaxy) Start Time: 6:00pm FAMILY NIGHT SKATE Thursdays 6pm-9pm & Sundays 6pm-8pm Admission is only $6 (includes skate rental) per person! Family Night $29 Package Special! Includes: Admission, Skate Rental, Pizza & Drinks For up to 5 Family members!
  • Final Drive (St Louis), Volition, Dred-Dour Start Time: 9:30pm
  • 🎭 Finding Santa (Chickasha Community Theatre - Chickasha) Start Time: 7:30pm
  • 🎭 Hands on Hardbody (Elsie C. Brackett Theatre - Norman) Start Time: 8:00pm HANDS ON A HARDBODY
    NORMAN—This December University Theatre will present the musical Hands on a Hardbody. The musical is infused with a country and rock-inflected score, telling the story of a hilarious, hard-fought contest for 10 down-on-their luck Texans, where only one winner can drive away with the American dream. Hands on a…
  • 🎓 Headliner Lecture: "Human Flourishing and the Urban Possibilities for our Grandchildren" (Oklahoma Memorial Union, Meecham Auditorium - Norman) Start Time: 6:30pm Human Flourishing and the Urban Possibilities for our Grandchildren December 8, 6:30 - 7:30 PM Meacham Auditorium, Oklahoma Memorial Union The University of Oklahoma 900 Asp Ave., Norman, OK 73019
    Register at http://www.ou.edu/flourish
    There is perhaps no more universal desire than to see our children and our children’s children flourish.…
  • Heavenly Holidays (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Thru Sat, Dec 17th Liven up the holiday season and attend a performance of "Heavenly Holidays" at the UCO Jazz Lab in Edmond.…
  • Holiday Carousel (Myriad Botanical Gardens) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 11:00am
  • Holiday Happening 2016 (Sam Noble Museum - Norman) Start Time: 4:00pm Bring the family and come be merry at our FREE 2016 Holiday Happening event at the Sam Noble Museum! We'll have an elf scavenger hunt for kids, photos with Santa Claus, holiday music, storybook time with Pioneer Library System, dancing and discounts at Excavations, the museum store, so you can cross some names off your holiday shopping lists!
  • 🎭 Home for the Holidays (Oklahoma City University) Start Time: 8:00pm “Home for the Holidays is a fast-moving, beautiful and entertaining show with something for everyone,” Rowan said. Home for the Holidays is recommended for ages 6 and up. Show times are 8 p.m. Dec. 8 and 9, 2 and 8 p.m. Dec. 10 and 2 p.m. Dec. 11. Tickets are $29 each and can be purchased by calling 405-208-5227
  • It's a Wonderful Life (Oklahoma City University) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 8:00am Back by popular demand, this beloved American holiday film classic comes to captivating life as a live 1940s radio broadcast. With the help of an ensemble that brings a few dozen characters to the stage, the story of idealistic George Bailey unfolds as he considers ending his life one fateful Christmas Eve. This uplifting and endearing classic…
  • Jake's Jingle Jam (Riverwind Casino - Norman) Start Time: 7:00pm Head to Riverwind Casino in Norman for Jake's Jingle Jam. Featuring The Band Perry and Luke Combs, guests are in for…
  • John Moreland (The Blue Door) Day 1 of 2
  • Making Peace Series Pt 3: Being a Peacemaker in the 21st Century (Norman Public Library - Norman) Start Time: 6:30pm Join us for the third and final presentation in our three-part Making Peace Series. For many people, the swirl of events reflected in daily news reports—local, national, and international—fuel a sense of despair. The enormity of problems evident in the ongoing, horrific conflict in Syria or severe tensions along racial or religious lines…
  • 🍴 Moderns Annual Holiday Party (Oklahoma City Museum of Art) Start Time: 6:00pm Let’s kick off the holiday season by joining together for an evening of glassblowing and celebration! Enjoy cocktails, hors d’oeuvres, and the opportunity to create a one-of-a-kind glass ornament. *This is a Moderns exclusive event. Members are allowed to bring one guest each. Not a Moderns Member? Contact [email protected].
  • The Museum Store (Western Heritage Museum) Start Time: 10:00am Thursday – Saturday 10:00 a.m. – 9:00 p.m. Sunday 10:00 a.m. – 6:00 p.m. Join The Museum Store in Midtown Oklahoma City for a fun and festive shopping experience! From stocking stuffers to showstoppers, The Museum Store is here to help with your gift-giving needs. Admission is not required to shop. For more information, contact The Museum…
  • A Nice Family Christmas (Carpenter Square Theatre) Start Time: 7:30pm Carpenter Square Theatre celebrates the holidays during its 33rd Season with the Oklahoma City premiere of “A Nice Family Christmas,” a comedy by Phil Olson. All performances November 25-December 17, 2016 are at the theater, located at 800 W. Main in downtown Oklahoma City. Specific performance dates and times are: 8 p.m.…
  • NORTH POLE ADVENTURE - 2016 Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 5:30pm
  • One Incredible Moment (First Presbyterian Church - Edmond) Start Time: 7:30pm Calendar Notice. First Presbyterian Church of Edmond presents “One Incredible Moment,” a musical drama for the entire family of the Savior’s birth, life, death and resurrection. It is scheduled 7:30 p.m. Thursday-Sunday Dec. 8-11. There is no cost. Childcare is provided for the slightly over one-hour presentation. Under the direction of…
  • Pre-K Play (Moore Public Library - Moore) Start Time: 10:00am Preschoolers and their caregivers are invited to create and play in this hour-long come and go event.
  • Secret Santa Toy Drive (Mattress Firm) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 10:00am All Mattress Firm stores in Oklahoma City are hosting a toy drive, the sixth of Mattress Firm Foster Kids’ 2016 donation drives benefitting local foster youth and families. Through Sunday, Dec. 18, 2016 during normal store hours, Mattress Firm will accept new toys and monetary contributions to spread holiday cheer for foster children and…
  • SNU: JV Men's Basketball vs Mid-America Christian (Bethany Library - Bethany) Start Time: 6:00pm JV Men's Basketball vs Mid-America Christian http://snuathletics.com/calendar.aspx?id=3034
  • Tai Chi For Better Balance (Noble Public Library - Noble) Start Time: 4:00pm The movements of Tai Chi help all ages reduce stress, increase balance and flexibility. Participants learn relaxation to improve their overall mind, body and spirit through a series of slow continuous movements. This program is designed for people at all levels of mobility and can be performed standing or sitting. Please wear comfortable…
  • Teen DIY Christmas gifts! (Guthrie Library - Guthrie) Start Time: 5:00pm Hey Teens! Stuck on what to give for christmas this year? Come to the DIY Christmas event. Where you'll get the chance to make one or many of the options to give to your family members. Some of the gifts avaible are Costume Decorated mugs or vases, scented schets, jersey knit braclets, and an arrow bookmark.
  • 🎓 Teens! Hour of Code (Moore Public Library - Moore) Start Time: 3:30pm Teens! Get creative and learn the basics with coding in this annual and nationwide program, Hour of Code. The Hour of Code is a global movement by Computer Science Education Week and Code.org reaching tens of millions of students in 180+ countries through a one-hour introduction to computer science and computer programming. No prior computer…
  • 😂 Trixx (Loony Bin Comedy Club) Thru Sat, Dec 10th
  • Wind Symphony: Rhapsodies and Blues (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Start Time: 7:30pm http://edmondok.com/calendar.aspx?EID=6941
  • 🏃 Zumba (Moore Public Library - Moore) Start Time: 6:00pm Latin and International music creates a dynamic, exciting, and effective fitness system! Participants must sign a waiver each class, and anyone under 18 must have parent/guardian consent and signature. This program is made possible through the Health Literacy Grant by Oklahoma Department of Libraries, Oklahoma Literacy Resource Office, and…

Friday, Dec 9th

  • 6X6 on 16th Group Art Show (District House) Day 2 of 2 Start Time: 6:00pm We're excited to announce our 6x6 on 16th Group Art Show! During December's LIVE on the Plaza and the Thursday night before, work by artists of all skillsets done on 6in x 6in canvas will be available fpr viewing and for sale at District House.
    Wanting to submit artwork for the show? Here's what you need to know -
    • All artwork submitted to…
  • Barrel Racing Futurity World Championship (Oklahoma State Fair Park) 1 day left The annual Barrel Racing Futurity World Championships come to Oklahoma State Fair Park. Put on by the Barrel Futurities…
  • Brian Setzer Orchestra (Firelake Arena - Shawnee)
  • Heavenly Holidays (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Thru Sat, Dec 17th Liven up the holiday season and attend a performance of "Heavenly Holidays" at the UCO Jazz Lab in Edmond.…
  • I See Stars (89th Street Collective) Head to 89th Street Collective in Oklahoma City for a thrilling night filled with upbeat electronic hardcore tunes.…
  • John Moreland (The Blue Door) Day 2 of 2
  • Pretty Boy Floyd et al. (Oklahoma City Limits)
  • Roy Clark (The State Theatre - Harrah)
  • Oklahoma City Thunder vs. Houston Rockets (Chesapeake Energy Arena) Start Time: 7:00pm
  • 😂 Trixx (Loony Bin Comedy Club) 1 day left

Saturday, Dec 10th

  • All-College Basketball Classic (Chesapeake Energy Arena) Start Time: 3:00pm The 2016 All-College Basketball Classic will be played on Saturday, December 10th at the Chesapeake Energy Arena. The contest will feature the Wichita State Shockers against the Oklahoma Sooners with tipoff slated for 3:00 PM.
    Children two and older must have a ticket.
  • America On Tap (Cox Convention Center) Start Time: 5:00pm Oklahoma City on Tap is coming to the Cox Convention Center on Saturday, December 10th from 5pm to 8pm. Sample over 100 releases from some of Americas best craft breweries. Plus hang out in an atmosphere filled with live music, delicious food available for purchase, and great vendors. Participants must be at least 21 years of age to attend.
  • Barrel Racing Futurity World Championship (Oklahoma State Fair Park) Last Day The annual Barrel Racing Futurity World Championships come to Oklahoma State Fair Park. Put on by the Barrel Futurities…
  • Blue October (Diamond Ballroom)
  • Oklahoma City Blue vs. Westchester Knicks (Cox Convention Center) Start Time: 7:00pm
  • The Drunkard and Olio
  • Heavenly Holidays (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Thru Sat, Dec 17th Liven up the holiday season and attend a performance of "Heavenly Holidays" at the UCO Jazz Lab in Edmond.…
  • Lil Durk (ACM @ UCO)
  • OKC Dodgers Snow Tubing Winter Festival (Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark) Day 1 of 2 Wavier must be filled out and signed by adult, parent, or guardian for each guest who wishes to snow tube. Follow link to download form, and present at will call.
  • 😂 Trixx (Loony Bin Comedy Club) Last Day

Sunday, Dec 11th

  • Danielle Nicole (Friends Bar)
  • Heavenly Holidays (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Thru Sat, Dec 17th Liven up the holiday season and attend a performance of "Heavenly Holidays" at the UCO Jazz Lab in Edmond.…
  • OKC Dodgers Snow Tubing Winter Festival (Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark) Day 2 of 2 Wavier must be filled out and signed by adult, parent, or guardian for each guest who wishes to snow tube. Follow link to download form, and present at will call.
  • Oklahoma City Thunder vs. Boston Celtics (Chesapeake Energy Arena) Start Time: 6:00pm

Monday, Dec 12th

  • Heavenly Holidays (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Thru Sat, Dec 17th Liven up the holiday season and attend a performance of "Heavenly Holidays" at the UCO Jazz Lab in Edmond.…
  • Milk Moms (Thrive Mama Collective) Start Time: 6:00pm
  • Pint Night at The Mule (Plaza District) Start Time: 5:00pm Come try a new brew and keep the glass while you're at it!
  • Public Access: Open Mic Mondays (District House) Start Time: 8:00pm Got talents? Come rock the mic.
    Hosted by Matt Raney

Tuesday, Dec 13th

  • Heavenly Holidays (University of Central Oklahoma - Edmond) Thru Sat, Dec 17th Liven up the holiday season and attend a performance of "Heavenly Holidays" at the UCO Jazz Lab in Edmond.…
submitted by eventbot to okc [link] [comments]


2016.11.01 11:20 LeJobber Sondage des 100 000 /r/français: Des idées de gens qu’on pourrait contacter pour un AMA ? [résultats]

Des idées de gens qu’on pourrait contacter pour un AMA ?

A cette question vous avez répondu des choses bizarres assez difficiles à mettre au propre. Il reste sûrement des votes éparpillés (syntaxes, orthographes, abréviations, initiales bizarres). J'ai fait le maximum à la main...

Les autres résultats

 
Nombre de votes Des idées de gens qu’on pourrait contacter pour un AMA ?
38 Alexandre Astier
36 Henry de Lesquen
27 Ta mère (ou la mère d'OP ou d'un modo)
20 Un candidat à la présidentielle
19 Nicolas Sarkozy
16 Jean-Luc Mélenchon
15 Moi
14 Phillipe Poutou
12 Jacques Chirac
12 Non
10 Usul
8 François Hollande
6 Jean-Marie Le Pen
6 Jacques Cheminade
6 Emmanuel Macron
5 Xavier Niel
5 Yann Barthés
5 Des youtubeurs
5 Sylvain Durif
5 Boulet
5 Bruce d'e-penser
4 Un journaliste
4 Jen-Michel Jarre
4 Mon papa ou beau-papa
4 Marine Le Pen
4 Gérard Depardieu
3 Johnny Hallyday
3 Etienne Klein
3 Ton/Mon cul
3 Patrick Balkany
3 Des jeunes politiciens ou politiciens indépendants
3 Des modos
3 Un sportif de haut niveau
3 Cédric Villani
3 Ma bite
3 François Rollin
3 Un écrivain
3 Karim Debbache
3 Des chercheurs
3 Manuel Valls
3 Alain Juppé
3 Julien lepers
3 Pierre-Emmanuel Barré
3 Le JDG
3 Un ingénieur (nucléaire, informatique, du CEA)
3 Oui
2 Animateur TV/Radio
2 Un politicien
2 Un boulanger
2 Manuel Ferrara
2 Nans et Mouts (nu et cullotés)
2 Jamy
2 Anne Hidalgo
2 Squeezie
2 Marion Le Pen
2 Squeezie
2 Michel Ancel
2 Dieu
2 Jean d'Ormesson
2 Un chef cuisinier
2 Un e-sportif
2 Un psychiatre/psychologue
2 Christine Boutin
2 Donald Trump
2 Guillaume Meurice
2 JJ Goldman
2 M'en fous
2 DSK
2 PNL
2 Yann LeCun
2 Nadine Morano
2 Batman
2 Alain Soral
2 Cyril Hanouna
2 Bernard Pivot
2 Lionel Jospin
2 Hubert Reeves
2 Vincent Bolloré
2 Clara morgane
2 BHL
2 Patrick Sébastien
2 Un agriculteur (de L'Amour est dans le Pré ou pas)
2 Jamy et/ou Fred de C'est pas sorcier.
1 Des gens de tous les jours
1 François Sardou
1 Jean-Marc Morandini
1 FilthyFrank
1 Des artistes
1 finkelkraut
1 Un vieux de 80/90ans
1 Fleur Pelerin
1 Denis Robert
1 Fossoyeur
1 u/Hippocrate01
1 Francis Lalanne
1 Un gestionnaire de patrimoine de luxe
1 François
1 Un mec/meuf qui fait des missions en Amazonie
1 François Bayrou
1 Gojira
1 Bah comme ça j'aurais dit Napoléon Bonaparte mais il est un peu trop mort.
1 Un mec d’extrême droite radicale pour créer un nouveau drama
1 Francois Pérusse
1 Des gens
1 François Poulichon
1 Un flic de base
1 Alain Souchon
1 Gerhard Schröder
1 Frederic Lordon.
1 Un dba oracle
1 Georges Pompidou
1 Edouard Baer
1 Gerard Baste
1 Orelsan
1 Bayrou
1 Un chômeur
1 GNA GNA GNA
1 Pacificsound3003
1 Gotlib
1 Mitt Romney
1 Guillaume Champeau
1 Un electeur du FN
1 Bernadette chirac
1 DavidLafargePokemon
1 Guillaume Pepy
1 A Mon Avis
1 Harambe
1 des gens casu
1 Hassen CHALGHOUMI
1 Des maires ou députés indépendants.
1 Henry de
1 Jean-Louis Borloo
1 Squezzie
1 Daniel Balavoine
1 Herbert Léonard
1 Alain Beitone
1 Hervé Mariton
1 Des humanitaires
1 Hervé Villard
1 O'Gaming
1 heyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyysalutàtouslesamiscestdavidlafargepokemon
1 Xavier Dolan
1 Bernard Minet
1 Justice
1 Hugo Travers
1 Emmanuel levard
1 Il y a des Neo Calédoniens sur le sub. Ça pourrait être sympa.
1 booba
1 ils sont ou les scientifiques et les entrepreneurs?
1 Idriss Sihamedi
1 Bernard Stiegler
1 C2C
1 Besancenot
1 Aymeric Caron
1 Jacques-Yves Cousteau par OuiJa
1 Chefs de cabinets
1 Karim Debbache
1 Mimi Mathy
1 JCFrog
1 Jean Lassalle
1 Jean Michel Apati
1 Un diplomate
1 Jean Pierre Pernaud
1 Un fdp de lurker en random ?
1 Jean-Claude Van Damme
1 Un sans papiers
1 Jean-Jacques Goldman
1 DeGaulle
1 Jean-Luc Bideau
1 Yvette horner
1 Jean-Luc Godard
1 Des élus locaux
1 Birdy Nam Nam
1 Des gens avec des métiers qu'on aurait pas imaginé
1 Jean-Michel
1 Des gens de la France d'en bas
1 black bloc
1 Accropolis
1 Bob d'Auckand
1 des personnes âgées.
1 José
1 Des zététiciens
1 Joseph Cantalou
1 Dieudonné
1 Joseph Staline
1 Adel des 2be3
1 Jospin
1 Libon
1 Joueur du grenier
1 Eric Piolle
1 JUL
1 Des scientifiques
1 Julien coupat
1 Thomas Pesquet
1 Amanda Lear
1 Patrick baud
1 Julien Lerpers
1 Des membres du gouvernement ou de ses entitées inutiles (aka HADOPI)
1 Anarcho-Jospiniste
1 idriss aberkane
1 Katsuni
1 Des auteurs de roman/BD/manga
1 Kévin le nolife
1 Le pape
1 Kyan khojandi
1 Les présidents d'associations pas nulles
1 La moustache d'Afrofagne
1 Jeanne d'arc
1 La Quadrature du Net
1 elon musk
1 La tomate
1 Les musiciens des Trois Accords
1 L'abbé Pierre
1 Stupeflip
1 L'association Coexister.
1 MisterMV
1 L'astronaute francais.
1 Le chef du mouvement shadok
1 Laurent de la Clergerie
1 Enki Bilal
1 Laurent Wauquiez
1 Cyroul
1 Le boss de Deliveroo
1 Zizou
1 Le connard qui prend 2 places de parking quand il se gare
1 Charline Vanhoenacker
1 Le général de Gaulle
1 Xavier-Louis de Izarra
1 Le grand père d'Anarcho_Jospiniste
1 Loic Prigent
1 le monde de l'edition jeux de role francais ?
1 Eva Joly
1 Le parti pirate
1 Des polémistes
1 Le président
1 Nota Bene
1 Le président de la Bougnoulie.
1 Un berger
1 le type d'hygiène mentale
1 Faire un cycle sur des gens qui sont encore dans leurs études (type bac +4/+5)
1 l'équipe de Framasoft. Déjà fait?
1 Un CRS
1 L'équipe de thinkerview
1 un doubleur de cinéma/série télé
1 Les gens au Service d'Information du Gouvernement
1 Un employé de la sncf
1 Les gens dont les prénoms commencent par Alb
1 Un français du programme spatial
1 l'inventeur du confit byaldi.
1 David Marty
1 Lionel Chamoulaud
1 Une actrice porno
1 bussiere
1 vincent cespedes
1 Lordon
1 Y(AMA)HA
1 l'orteil de thouny
1 Depardieu
1 Lucas Pouille
1 Députés
1 Carla Bruni
1 abu bakr al baghdadi
1 Madame Michu
1 Des eurodéputés genre Sylvie Goulard
1 Afrofagne
1 Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
1 Marc Muscadel
1 Korben
1 Marien pardi !
1 Kery James
1 Céline Tran (katsuni)
1 Des hauts fonctionnaires et des moins hauts
1 CEO d'Ubisoft?
1 Un patron de startup française en vogue
1 Marion marechal petain
1 Des mecs qui font les chansons pour les pubs à la radio
1 Martine Aubry
1 Des gens de tous horizons pour faire découvrir les parcours et les problèmes
1 Charles de Gaule
1 Des personnes avec des troubles psychiatriques
1 Charlie Hebdo
1 Antoine de Maximy
1 Michel Sardou
1 Développeurs de JVs
1 /OracleJDBtruc
1 stukka
1 Montebourg
1 u/A_french_chinses_man
1 Chouard
1 Axelle Lemaire
1 Christian Clavier
1 DISIZ
1 Narkuss
1 Arthur
1 Neil Degrasse Tyson
1 Hillary Clinton
1 Nelson Montfort
1 Guy Verhofstadt
1 Nicolas sadirac
1 Xavier Duportet
1 ?
1 Le mec qui veut le revenu universel
1 AnonBaguette
1 B. Bayart
1 Christine Boutin
1 Mec à la tête de gros centres de recherche et industrie du gouvernement : CNRS CNES INRA
1 Pas de célébrités sinon ça va attirer trop de touristes.
1 Florian Philippot
1 Pas d'idée
1 NKM
1 Antoine Daniel
1 Jean Rochefort
1 Patrick Buisson
1 Jésus Christ
1 Patrick Sebastien
1 Drucker
1 Corbier
1 YellowStar
1 Paul Bismuth
1 Un redditeur médecin
1 Philippe Martinez
1 Un conservateur du patrimoine
1 Philippe petit
1 Laurent Chemla
1 Xavier de La Porte
1 Corinne Lepage
1 Des auteurs (type Goncourt ou littérature récente)
1 Babar
1 daft punk
1 Framasoft (des membres d'asso libre)
1 Serge Ayoub
1 Maitre_eolas
1 dame pipi
1 Michel Onfray
1 popeck
1 Les gens qui introduisent les ours dans les Pyrénées
1 Pourquoi des gens? La condition animale est sous représentée
1 Jérôme Kerviel
1 Prof de banlieue
1 Mr Poulpe
1 Professions scientifiques
1 Etienne Chouard
1 Quelques français célèbre
1 Lorde
1 Quelqu'un d'Arkane Studio !
1 Celui (ou celle) qui survit au passage à l'hosto
1 Rachid Abou Houdeyfa
1 kaaris
1 Ramon Pippin
1 Le mec qui a inventé les boudins de portes
1 Raphaël Zacharie de Izarra
1 Le gars de Linguisticae
1 remi gaillard
1 Un assistant parlementaire
1 Rémi Gaillard
1 H2L
1 Renaud
1 Asselineau
1 Salah Abdeslam
1 Mon pote Kévin
1 Sardoche
1 Soufron
1 Sean Murray
1 enjoyphoenix
1 Serge Dassault
1 CRS
1 Serge l'AMA
1 Un enfant de 5ans
1 Serge le lAMA
1 Élise Lucet
1 Serge Marquis
1 Jean-Pierre Coffe
1 Damien Saez
1 Fred & Jamy Lannister
1 Dave.
1 Gilles Dor
1 Stéphanie de Monaco
1 Thomas Pesquet.
1 David Bowie
1 Georges Marchais
1 Ta mere
1 Secrétaire ministérielle
1 Taddei
1 un gars qui fait des trucs mnémotechniques
1 Takashi El Bilel
1 Badinter
1 Taubira
1 Un acteur
1 Tex
1 Elice Lucet
1 Thieulin
1 Aznavour
1 Tolkien
1 Avril Lavigne
1 Tout le monde sauf des politiques
1 Un auteur de fantasy
1 Un agent secret
1 Thinkerview
1 un charcutieun globe trotter
1 Faut que j'y réfléchisse.
1 David Fafarge
1 fils de pute
1 Un clodo
1 Jean-Pierre Raffarin
1 Benjamin Bayart (French Data Network)
1 Quelqu'un qui a fait du travail dans les Kergulens.
1 Afida Turner
1 Pomf & Thud
1 Elise Lucet
1 Pierre Croce
1 Gens qui vient des territoires (Guyane, Pierre & Miquelon)
1 Pierre Desproges
1 Bernard Cazeneuve
1 Pierre Rabhi
1 Jean-Christophe Victor
1 Pleyel
submitted by LeJobber to france [link] [comments]


2016.09.05 20:45 DownWithAssad Analysis of Russia's Information War

This post will discuss Russia's use of black/white propaganda.
CyberBerkut
I have been researching the group that edited documents to try and make the popular anti-corruption blogger Alexei Navalny, look like a Soros/CIA puppet. The name of the group is CyberBerkut and it emerged around the annexation of Crimea in March, 2014. It purports to be a pro-Russian Ukrainian hacking group, that supports the Russian separatists in Eastern Ukraine.
However, it can be stated with high confidence that this group is actually a disinformation front for Russian intelligence. Basically, this isn't the first time CyberBerkut pretended to hack a video/document/audio but in reality, forged some stuff and then pretended to "hack" it from enemies of the Kremlin.
One of the earliest examples of disinformation by CyberBerkut was this video which it claimed it "hacked" from the laptop of one of John McCain's aides when he visited Ukraine as a show of U.S. support (McCain is demonized in Russian media for being a hardliner towards Russia). They claimed the video shows some actors pretending to be Jihadi John and James Foley, his execution being filmed in front of a green screen! But the good folks over at MetaBunk did a frame-by-frame comparison of the real execution video and the so-called "leaked" filming of the set. They found that the actor had different movements compared to the real JJ, along with several other visual mismatches. Here's the full debunking:
https://www.metabunk.org/debunked-cyberberkut-video-supposedly-showing-staged-isis-beheading-of-foley.t6520/
This "secret" video was prominently featured on sites like InfoWars and Global Research.
Now, who would have the time, money, resources, and will power (complete with actors, clothing, cameras, props, etc.,) to put so much effort into creating a fake video to spread the conspiracy theory that America is staging ISIS' videos and is controlling it? Only a state like Russia, of course.
The second example of disinformation by CyberBerkut is a video showing neo-Nazi pro-Ukrainian fighters burning the Dutch flag. Russian propaganda likes to portray Ukraine as a failed state with Nazi/fascist hordes "genociding" ethnic Russian and that the U.S. supports this, much in the way it claims the U.S. supports ISIS in Syria. Anyway, the significance of this video, in which the fighters burned a Dutch flag, is that it was released around the same time a referendum was going to take place in the Netherlands, regarding Ukraine being allowed to sign the EU Association Agreement. This video was thoroughly debunked by the goods folks over at Bellingcat. It proved the video itself was fake and that Russian trolls began a concerted campaign to spread the video on the web. Interestingly, Bellingcat's website was hacked and defaced by CyberBerkut. I wonder why? They've also been implicated in DDoS attacks on NATO, Ukrainian, and German government websites.
Another example is when CyberBerkut pretended to hack documents from Ukraine's SBU. One document was a confidential letter from Vasili Gritsak (SBU's First Deputy Chairman and the head of its Anti-Terrorism Center) to Hennadiy Kuznetsov (SBU Colonel, then head of Special Operations Center A, a unit responsible for special anti-terrorist operations), appearing to show Gritsak directing Kuznetsov to carry out "false flag" attacks in Eastern Ukraine to blame on pro-Russian separatists. The objective of forging these documents and then pretending to hack them from Ukraine's SBU was to make it look like pro-Russian separatists were being unfairly blamed for civilian deaths.
Interestingly, Russia disinformation is obsessed with making anything that puts Russia in a bad light a "false flag." Russian trolls have been caught posting conspiracy theories of MH17 being a CIA/NATO/Ukrainian false flag or that they were aiming for Putin's plane but accidentally hit MH17. A laughable theory, but one that many in Russia accept.
Here are some more examples of blatantly clear Russian disinformation:
Fake Video of ‘American’ Shooting a Quran Traced to Russian Propaganda Agency
Propaganda Watch: Listen to Two Russians Badly Impersonate CIA Spies to Pin MH17 on U.S.
Columbia Chemical hoax tracked to “troll farm” dubbed the Internet Research Agency
Russian disinformation about MH17 debunked.
SU-25, MH17 and the Problems with Keeping a Story Straight
Russian state-sponsored hacking group pretending to be an ISIS cyber group hacked of French TV station TV5Monde offline
Russian disinformation about U.S. moving nukes from Turkey to Romania, in order to undermine trust between U.S. and Turkey and make the Romanian populace protest against the Aegis missile defence system in Deveselu because they falsely think there are nukes there
Russian TV hiring actors in Ukraine: http://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2014/03/putin-war-propaganda-exposed-same-pro-russian-actress-used-in-five-different-ukrainian-reports/
Russian troll factory spreading disinformation about murdered opposition activist Boris Nemtsov's death being a CIA false flag to destabilize Russia:
When opposition leader Boris Nemtsov was shot dead within sight of the Kremlin in March, suspicion immediately fell on those with links to Russian president Vladimir Putin.
Ms Savchuk said the orders at the Troll Factory were handed down quickly.
"They were just told: 'Nemtsov is killed. Everyone should urgently concentrate on this job. We shall write this and that'," she said.
"On that day they were writing that it was a provocation against the authorities, that he was killed by 'his own people'."
The above tactic of calling everything a "false flag, such as MH17, is a good example of what Russia is trying to achieve: confusion and paralysis in the minds of Westerners so they question anything critical of Russia. Critics of Russia are smeared as being "anti-Russia", "Russophobic", "neocons", "warmongers", etc. Elliot Higgins and former U.S. ambassador to Russia, Michael McFaul, have been demonized in the Russian media and Russian trolls online.
The unofficial Russian branch of Anonymous (Shaltai Boltai) hacked the "Internet Research Agency" - a well known Russian troll farm - and leaked everything - emails, names, contact information, salaries, lists of troll accounts, assignments, you name it. Torrent link of dump:
http://btdigg.org/search?info_hash=48490890253391c9c7b1592dfded633a62394373&q=dzalba1.rar
EDIT: Just realized the torrent link is dead and that there are actually three parts to the archive. Here are working MEGA mirrors for the 3 files:
https://mega.nz/#!NwZCzLAI!gUlCZkOxV733XXra4RaLTEKxeFXfpu-ztijzxSBLVeA https://mega.nz/#!J8gX2a4B!QueMoHgV4kiYbcDa4SsghwODeO400ZqG-4Uy8q8LT0Q https://mega.nz/#!04IUFCzQ!RIWjE5oCYEsyT67_ztqUg65d_jYX7X-6UahfPTi8Qmg
Please make sure you scan them with an anti-virus, as it's possible Russian intelligence embedded spyware within the archives and re-upped them online to spy on the few people in the world who have an interest in these things. Sounds paranoid, but better to stay safe.
Curiously, their website is blocked in Russia - you can't access it in there.
More info in this must-read document of Russia's use of disinformation with a historical context:
The membership of CyberBerkut is anonymous, but reportedly includes former officers in the Crimean Berkut. That unit was part of Ukraine's Interior Ministry until Crimea's March 2014 annexation, upon which the Crimean Berkut was incorporated into Russia's Interior Ministry. CyberBerkut's "Ukrainian identity" is vigorously asserted, however, as it postures as an internal opposition group.
Cyberattacks and Leaks Though Front Groups
Snowden also blamed the recent NSA cyberweapons leaks on Russia. Snowden's tweets in full (bolded for emphasis by me):
The hack of an NSA malware staging server is not unprecedented, but the publication of the take is. Here's what you need to know: (1/x)
1) NSA traces and targets malware C2 servers in a practice called Counter Computer Network Exploitation, or CCNE. So do our rivals.
2) NSA is often lurking undetected for years on the C2 and ORBs (proxy hops) of state hackers. This is how we follow their operations.
3) This is how we steal their rivals' hacking tools and reverse-engineer them to create "fingerprints" to help us detect them in the future.
4) Here's where it gets interesting: the NSA is not made of magic. Our rivals do the same thing to us -- and occasionally succeed.
5) Knowing this, NSA's hackers (TAO) are told not to leave their hack tools ("binaries") on the server after an op. But people get lazy.
6) What's new? NSA malware staging servers getting hacked by a rival is not new. A rival publicly demonstrating they have done so is.
7) Why did they do it? No one knows, but I suspect this is more diplomacy than intelligence, related to the escalation around the DNC hack.
8) Circumstantial evidence and conventional wisdom indicates Russian responsibility. Here's why that is significant:
9) This leak is likely a warning that someone can prove US responsibility for any attacks that originated from this malware server.
10) That could have significant foreign policy consequences. Particularly if any of those operations targeted US allies.
11) Particularly if any of those operations targeted elections.
12) Accordingly, this may be an effort to influence the calculus of decision-makers wondering how sharply to respond to the DNC hacks.
13) TL;DR: This leak looks like a somebody sending a message that an escalation in the attribution game could get messy fast.
Bonus: When I came forward, NSA would have migrated offensive operations to new servers as a precaution - it's cheap and easy. So? So...
The undetected hacker squatting on this NSA server lost access in June 2013. Rare public data point on the positive results of the leak.
Only a state has the power to leak NSA's weapons left on a server. I agree with Snowden's assessment that it was Russia. His reasoning is that this is a warning to America. Before the FBI publicly announces those behind the DNC leak, Russia is warning the U.S. that they can prove the U.S. hacking into computers too.
What surprises me most is how naive the West has become. We're being bombarded with leaks on an almost weekly basis now. Most people have probably focused on the DNC leaks, but did you know that a group calling itself "DCLeaks" leaked the internal documents of liberal George Soros' Open Society Foundation AND the private emails of the NATO general? Here's a look at their Twitter account (tell me if you notice their emphasis on a certain country):
Hacked NATO general defends plotting to push Obama to escalate tensions with Russia
Breedlove’s war: Emails show ex-NATO general plotting US conflict with Russia
Dangerous Propaganda: Network Close To NATO Military Leader Fueled Ukraine Conflict
Emails show Obama saw US involvement in Russia talks as a 'threat'
'Gen. plotted against Obama on Russia'
Check George Soros's OSF plans to counter Russian policy and traditional values
All they post are tweets relevant to Russia.
ThreatConnect Identifies DCLeaks As Another Russian-backed Influence Outlet
Also, Russia hates NATO and Soros, which are the only topics the leaks from DCLeaks talk about.
What's most interesting is that the Russians lost access to their hacked NSA computer June 2013 directly because of the actions of Snowden. Snowden claims that after he outed the secrets of the NSA, the NSA was forced to change the computers it uses for offensive operations, thus booting out the Russians too.
We now have proof of four leaks in mere weeks, all done by Russia, to influence Americans' opinions on the 2016 election (pro-Trump), to hate NATO, to publicly embarrass the NSA and warn the FBI of the consequences of announcing Russia was behind the DNC leaks, and disinformation about Soros to lure Trump supporters. This is unprecedented in Western history - Cold War active measures are back. They are using fake personas - "Guccifer2.0", "DCLeaks", and now "The Shadow Brokers" - the NSA weapons leakers - to destabilize the U.S.
Assange doesn't care about the truth. He only cares at getting back at Clinton. He's been handed no less than 4 separate leaks in the past few weeks (DNC emails, Soros foundation's intranet documents, NATO general's emails, and NSA cyber weapons). He's a whistleblower with a talented background in programming/hacking just like Snowden. He should be feeling suspicious about the large number of leaks regarding the U.S. But he hasn't publicly mentioned it - he knows it's Russia, but won't admit it. As an interesting aside, Guccifer2.0 claimed on Twitter that he gave Assange the DNC emails. If so, why is Assange spreading conspiracy theories about the dead DNC staffer, Seth Rich? Strange indeed.
Russian Propaganda in the West: Websites and Astroturfers
Russia is relying on naive Westerners to hate NATO and Soros. In other words, useful idiots. These people tend to be Conservative, Christian,, and conspiracy theorists to boot. They tend to be anti-establishment. Basically, much of the Republican base. Putin is popular among Republicans since he is viewed as a strongman and Conservative types are attracted to that. Furthermore, the Conservative media has portrayed Putin as a saviour of Christianity and in comparison to Obama, who they view as a secret Muslim Socialist/Communist from Kenya, he is respected much more by those on the Right. Russian Active Measure takes this into account. As an example, a well known anonymous hoaxer named "Sorcha Faal" - who claims to have access to the GRU/SVFSB - has since 2005 posted various hoax articles all favourable to Russia and pandering to the Right. Such examples include his/her article on "Putin declaring Black Lives Matter (BLM) a terrorist organization," something obviously false and never even confirmed. And yet, those who planted this story knew Republicans hate BLM since they are anti-cop and by extension, anti-authority, anathema to patriotic Rightists. Other examples include frequent commentary on Soros trying to reduce the birth rate and promote inter-ethnic marriage, and of course, the refugee crisis in Europe. The latter crisis is more applicable to Europe and Russian Active Measures has taken that into account. Countless viral news sites have popped up since 2014, all focused on the refugee crisis with anti-migrant commentary written by anonymous authors. These websites are extremely pro-Russian, anti-NATO, and frequently post anti-EU articles, along with conspiracy theories. These websites have popped up all over Europe in various languages. Here is a partial list of them, with analysis by a keen Russian disinformation-watcher, who analyzed the funding, founders, WHOIS, and social media links of these websites:
eadaily.com Analysis - Russian
southfront.org Analysis - Website analyzing Syrian and Ukrainian conflicts with a pro-Russian and anti-NATO/U.S. bent.
xxivek.net Analysis - Russian
geworld.ge Analysis - Greek
aeronet.cz Analysis - Czech Republic
strategic-culture.org Analysis - Created by Strategic Culture Foundation based in Moscow and aligned with the Centre for Research on Globalization in Canada, and with the Communist Party of China's 4th Media operation.
Here's a good article to read: The pro-Russian Disinformation Campaign in the Czech Republic and Slovakia
I see from reddit.com/The_Donald that you people already hate Soros (links often lead to Russian disinformation websites) and think NATO should turn into a protection racket, ignoring basic hegemonic theory and forward deployment strategy of the U.S. near Russia and China.
As an example, take a look at this conspiracy theory (and irrational) self post from /The_Donald:
Is it just me or does it seem kind of funny that whenever there's emails leaked of people in the Clintons circle a shooting or riot comes up to distract people right after the leaks happen
And look at one of the more popular comments:
Every single time. This distraction brought to you by George Soros
Political Control
One extremely far-right party in Hungary, called Jobbik, that is vehemently pro-Russian, was investigated by an independent Hungarian journalist, who wrote an article detailing the long-running recruitment of a Hungarian man, Béla Kovács, by Russia, after he married another KGB agent from Russia whom he met in Japan, when his father worked at the Hungarian embassy there. His new wife exposed him to the fact that he himself had been adopted and his real father was a KGB agent. Kovács then went to Russia and upon returning, had become pro-Russian and wealthy enough to fund a new Hungarian political party, called Jobbik, who he would later represent in the European Parliament. His father, who worked at the Hungarian embassy in Japan (a country thoroughly infiltrated by the Soviets due to its weak intelligence system) during the Cold War, was told by a stationed Hungarian intelligence officer that this woman his son had met was a long-running KGB agent that had previously married not only a Japanese nuclear scientist (presumably for access to nuclear technology) but also an Austrian underworld criminal (presumably for an Austrian passport to enable free travel through the EU's Schengen Zone). Most likely, she recruited Kovács to the KGB by telling him his father was a KGB agent and that he was adopted. The Jobbik party is extremely pro-Russian and borderline neo-Nazi. Russia has been accused of funding and developing it through Kovács. Both Kovács and his wife are under investigation.
Just goes to show how far back Russia has infiltrated European parties.
Read the fascinating investigation: A glorious match made in Russia
Russia is also using Alexander Dugin to cultivates ties with far-right parties in Europe:
Russia and Front National: Following the Money
Russian politicians building an international extreme right alliance
The far right "International Russian Conservative Forum" to take place in Russia
German Die Linke delegation visits right-wing terrorists in Eastern Ukraine
Greek left-wing SYRIZA forms a coalition with the pro-Kremlin far right
Vladimir Zhirinovsky's contacts with the European far right in the Yeltsin era
European far right politicians observe regional elections in Russia
British, French, Dutch, Spanish Hungarian, Slovakian, Serbian, and Czech far-right parties all connected to the Kremlin going back decades.
Here are some articles about Russia's usage of online trolls:
https://globalvoicesonline.org/2015/04/02/analyzing-kremlin-twitter-bots/
http://globalvoicesonline.org/2015/07/13/open-source-information-reveals-pro-kremlin-web-campaign/
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/07/magazine/the-agency.html
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/ap02/putin-kremlin-inside-russian-troll-house
http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/interview-with-ex-russian-internet-troll-lyudmila-savchuk-a-1036539.html
http://yle.fi/uutiset/webmaster_claims_pro-russia_trolls_stalk_finlands_biggest_russian_forum/8165524
http://kioski.yle.fi/omat/troll-piece-2-english
http://kioski.yle.fi/omat/this-is-what-pro-russia-internet-propaganda-feels-like
http://frivarld.se/nyheteenglish-summary-russian-psychological-warfare-latvia/
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/russia/11656043/My-life-as-a-pro-Putin-propagandist-in-Russias-secret-troll-factory.html
http://www.rferl.org/content/how-to-guide-russian-trolling-trolls/26919999.html
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31962644
Domestic disinformation exists too:
http://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2014/03/putin-war-propaganda-exposed-same-pro-russian-actress-used-in-five-different-ukrainian-reports/
http://www.forbes.com/sites/paulroderickgregory/2014/04/12/russian-tv-caught-red-handed-same-guy-same-demonstration-but-three-different-people-spy-bystander-heroic-surgeon/
An example of a fake Russian-created Twitter profile is this profile with 36K tweets in 6 months: https://twitter.com/FOXLADY9
Pro Pegida/ Pro Russia/ Anti Migrant Invasions/ Anti Islam/ I'm a Pinot Coloda Girl Love to Walk in the Rain/Enjoy a good Laugh/Clean Fun/Sassy/Outspoken
East Europe
Joined February 2016
Response by the West
This may sound cheesy, but the West doesn't do disinformation. Even during the Cold War, the side known for disinformation (Active Measures) was the Soviet block, not the West. Russia is an authoritarian country. It has no qualms paying thousands of people to spread pro-Kremlin propaganda online.
Europe has set up some sort of media monitoring centre, called "East StratCom Task Force", to counter Russian propaganda, that they created in March of 2015. It's one of the most pathetic and useless things I've even seen. All they do is make a weekly .pdf file of Russia's lies and conspiracy theories Russian trolls try to spread online. They then upload said pdf file to some random corner of the web and call that their "response". Passive but not active.
The U.S. isn't doing anything to debunk the disinformation the Russian trolls are spreading. We need to create a counter-narrative to Russia's claims. Part of this means we have to be on the right side of the truth. Whether you agree or not, the people of Crimea voted to join Russia and earlier polls going back to the 90s indicate they've always supported this. Whenever Obama says "Crimea was annexed", his statements are translated/subtitled to Russian and put on YouTube for the Russians to be outraged at, because in their view, they're being punished for democracy. This benefits Putin and demonizes the West's arguments, so whenever we try and prove Putin is corrupt, the Russian populace assumes we're lying and smearing him. They've been mentally conditioned to ignore criticism of Putin. Putin's approval ratings are the highest in the world. Before the Crimea issue, they were hovering in the 60s, not much higher than where Obama is now. Afterwards, in February 2014, they skyrocketed to the 90s range. We in the West must accept that our rhetoric and message are too harsh for Russians. We should tone down the Crimea rhetoric and instead, focus on other things that irk Russia, like corruption in Putin's party, or pro-Russian rebels in E. Ukraine committing heinous crimes/torture.
For now, read some of this history regarding Soviet Active Measures (relevant to our current situation):
Soviet Active Measures in the "Post-Cold War" Era 1988-1991
submitted by DownWithAssad to europe [link] [comments]


2016.08.31 20:26 DownWithAssad Analysis of Russia's Information War

This post will discuss Russia's use of black/white propaganda.
CyberBerkut
I have been researching the group that edited documents to try and make the popular anti-corruption blogger Alexei Navalny, look like a Soros/CIA puppet. The name of the group is CyberBerkut and it emerged around the annexation of Crimea in March, 2014. It purports to be a pro-Russian Ukrainian hacking group, that supports the Russian separatists in Eastern Ukraine.
However, it can be stated with high confidence that this group is actually a disinformation front for Russian intelligence. Basically, this isn't the first time CyberBerkut pretended to hack a video/document/audio but in reality, forged some stuff and then pretended to "hack" it from enemies of the Kremlin.
One of the earliest examples of disinformation by CyberBerkut was this video which it claimed it "hacked" from the laptop of one of John McCain's aides when he visited Ukraine as a show of U.S. support (McCain is demonized in Russian media for being a hardliner towards Russia). They claimed the video shows some actors pretending to be Jihadi John and James Foley, his execution being filmed in front of a green screen! But the good folks over at MetaBunk did a frame-by-frame comparison of the real execution video and the so-called "leaked" filming of the set. They found that the actor had different movements compared to the real JJ, along with several other visual mismatches. Here's the full debunking:
https://www.metabunk.org/debunked-cyberberkut-video-supposedly-showing-staged-isis-beheading-of-foley.t6520/
This "secret" video was prominently featured on sites like InfoWars and Global Research.
Now, who would have the time, money, resources, and will power (complete with actors, clothing, cameras, props, etc.,) to put so much effort into creating a fake video to spread the conspiracy theory that America is staging ISIS' videos and is controlling it? Only a state like Russia, of course.
The second example of disinformation by CyberBerkut is a video showing neo-Nazi pro-Ukrainian fighters burning the Dutch flag. Russian propaganda likes to portray Ukraine as a failed state with Nazi/fascist hordes "genociding" ethnic Russian and that the U.S. supports this, much in the way it claims the U.S. supports ISIS in Syria. Anyway, the significance of this video, in which the fighters burned a Dutch flag, is that it was released around the same time a referendum was going to take place in the Netherlands, regarding Ukraine being allowed to sign the EU Association Agreement. This video was thoroughly debunked by the goods folks over at Bellingcat. It proved the video itself was fake and that Russian trolls began a concerted campaign to spread the video on the web. Interestingly, Bellingcat's website was hacked and defaced by CyberBerkut. I wonder why? They've also been implicated in DDoS attacks on NATO, Ukrainian, and German government websites.
Another example is when CyberBerkut pretended to hack documents from Ukraine's SBU. One document was a confidential letter from Vasili Gritsak (SBU's First Deputy Chairman and the head of its Anti-Terrorism Center) to Hennadiy Kuznetsov (SBU Colonel, then head of Special Operations Center A, a unit responsible for special anti-terrorist operations), appearing to show Gritsak directing Kuznetsov to carry out "false flag" attacks in Eastern Ukraine to blame on pro-Russian separatists. The objective of forging these documents and then pretending to hack them from Ukraine's SBU was to make it look like pro-Russian separatists were being unfairly blamed for civilian deaths.
Interestingly, Russia disinformation is obsessed with making anything that puts Russia in a bad light a "false flag." Russian trolls have been caught posting conspiracy theories of MH17 being a CIA/NATO/Ukrainian false flag or that they were aiming for Putin's plane but accidentally hit MH17. A laughable theory, but one that many in Russia accept.
Here are some more examples of blatantly clear Russian disinformation:
Fake Video of ‘American’ Shooting a Quran Traced to Russian Propaganda Agency
Propaganda Watch: Listen to Two Russians Badly Impersonate CIA Spies to Pin MH17 on U.S.
Columbia Chemical hoax tracked to “troll farm” dubbed the Internet Research Agency
Russian disinformation about MH17 debunked.
SU-25, MH17 and the Problems with Keeping a Story Straight
Russian state-sponsored hacking group pretending to be an ISIS cyber group hacked of French TV station TV5Monde offline
Russian disinformation about U.S. moving nukes from Turkey to Romania, in order to undermine trust between U.S. and Turkey and make the Romanian populace protest against the Aegis missile defence system in Deveselu because they falsely think there are nukes there
Russian TV hiring actors in Ukraine: http://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2014/03/putin-war-propaganda-exposed-same-pro-russian-actress-used-in-five-different-ukrainian-reports/
Russian troll factory spreading disinformation about murdered opposition activist Boris Nemtsov's death being a CIA false flag to destabilize Russia:
When opposition leader Boris Nemtsov was shot dead within sight of the Kremlin in March, suspicion immediately fell on those with links to Russian president Vladimir Putin.
Ms Savchuk said the orders at the Troll Factory were handed down quickly.
"They were just told: 'Nemtsov is killed. Everyone should urgently concentrate on this job. We shall write this and that'," she said.
"On that day they were writing that it was a provocation against the authorities, that he was killed by 'his own people'."
The above tactic of calling everything a "false flag, such as MH17, is a good example of what Russia is trying to achieve: confusion and paralysis in the minds of Westerners so they question anything critical of Russia. Critics of Russia are smeared as being "anti-Russia", "Russophobic", "neocons", "warmongers", etc. Elliot Higgins and former U.S. ambassador to Russia, Michael McFaul, have been demonized in the Russian media and Russian trolls online.
The unofficial Russian branch of Anonymous (Shaltai Boltai) hacked the "Internet Research Agency" - a well known Russian troll farm - and leaked everything - emails, names, contact information, salaries, lists of troll accounts, assignments, you name it. Torrent link of dump:
http://btdigg.org/search?info_hash=48490890253391c9c7b1592dfded633a62394373&q=dzalba1.rar
EDIT: Just realized the torrent link is dead and that there are actually three parts to the archive. Here are working MEGA mirrors for the 3 files:
https://mega.nz/#!NwZCzLAI!gUlCZkOxV733XXra4RaLTEKxeFXfpu-ztijzxSBLVeA https://mega.nz/#!J8gX2a4B!QueMoHgV4kiYbcDa4SsghwODeO400ZqG-4Uy8q8LT0Q https://mega.nz/#!04IUFCzQ!RIWjE5oCYEsyT67_ztqUg65d_jYX7X-6UahfPTi8Qmg
Please make sure you scan them with an anti-virus, as it's possible Russian intelligence embedded spyware within the archives and re-upped them online to spy on the few people in the world who have an interest in these things. Sounds paranoid, but better to stay safe.
Curiously, their website is blocked in Russia - you can't access it in there.
More info in this must-read document of Russia's use of disinformation with a historical context:
The membership of CyberBerkut is anonymous, but reportedly includes former officers in the Crimean Berkut. That unit was part of Ukraine's Interior Ministry until Crimea's March 2014 annexation, upon which the Crimean Berkut was incorporated into Russia's Interior Ministry. CyberBerkut's "Ukrainian identity" is vigorously asserted, however, as it postures as an internal opposition group.
Cyberattacks and Leaks Though Front Groups
Snowden also blamed the recent NSA cyberweapons leaks on Russia. Snowden's tweets in full (bolded for emphasis by me):
The hack of an NSA malware staging server is not unprecedented, but the publication of the take is. Here's what you need to know: (1/x)
1) NSA traces and targets malware C2 servers in a practice called Counter Computer Network Exploitation, or CCNE. So do our rivals.
2) NSA is often lurking undetected for years on the C2 and ORBs (proxy hops) of state hackers. This is how we follow their operations.
3) This is how we steal their rivals' hacking tools and reverse-engineer them to create "fingerprints" to help us detect them in the future.
4) Here's where it gets interesting: the NSA is not made of magic. Our rivals do the same thing to us -- and occasionally succeed.
5) Knowing this, NSA's hackers (TAO) are told not to leave their hack tools ("binaries") on the server after an op. But people get lazy.
6) What's new? NSA malware staging servers getting hacked by a rival is not new. A rival publicly demonstrating they have done so is.
7) Why did they do it? No one knows, but I suspect this is more diplomacy than intelligence, related to the escalation around the DNC hack.
8) Circumstantial evidence and conventional wisdom indicates Russian responsibility. Here's why that is significant:
9) This leak is likely a warning that someone can prove US responsibility for any attacks that originated from this malware server.
10) That could have significant foreign policy consequences. Particularly if any of those operations targeted US allies.
11) Particularly if any of those operations targeted elections.
12) Accordingly, this may be an effort to influence the calculus of decision-makers wondering how sharply to respond to the DNC hacks.
13) TL;DR: This leak looks like a somebody sending a message that an escalation in the attribution game could get messy fast.
Bonus: When I came forward, NSA would have migrated offensive operations to new servers as a precaution - it's cheap and easy. So? So...
The undetected hacker squatting on this NSA server lost access in June 2013. Rare public data point on the positive results of the leak.
Only a state has the power to leak NSA's weapons left on a server. I agree with Snowden's assessment that it was Russia. His reasoning is that this is a warning to America. Before the FBI publicly announces those behind the DNC leak, Russia is warning the U.S. that they can prove the U.S. hacking into computers too.
What surprises me most is how naive the West has become. We're being bombarded with leaks on an almost weekly basis now. Most people have probably focused on the DNC leaks, but did you know that a group calling itself "DCLeaks" leaked the internal documents of liberal George Soros' Open Society Foundation AND the private emails of the NATO general? Here's a look at their Twitter account (tell me if you notice their emphasis on a certain country):
Hacked NATO general defends plotting to push Obama to escalate tensions with Russia
Breedlove’s war: Emails show ex-NATO general plotting US conflict with Russia
Dangerous Propaganda: Network Close To NATO Military Leader Fueled Ukraine Conflict
Emails show Obama saw US involvement in Russia talks as a 'threat'
'Gen. plotted against Obama on Russia'
Check George Soros's OSF plans to counter Russian policy and traditional values
All they post are tweets relevant to Russia.
ThreatConnect Identifies DCLeaks As Another Russian-backed Influence Outlet
Also, Russia hates NATO and Soros, which are the only topics the leaks from DCLeaks talk about.
What's most interesting is that the Russians lost access to their hacked NSA computer June 2013 directly because of the actions of Snowden. Snowden claims that after he outed the secrets of the NSA, the NSA was forced to change the computers it uses for offensive operations, thus booting out the Russians too.
We now have proof of four leaks in mere weeks, all done by Russia, to influence Americans' opinions on the 2016 election (pro-Trump), to hate NATO, to publicly embarrass the NSA and warn the FBI of the consequences of announcing Russia was behind the DNC leaks, and disinformation about Soros to lure Trump supporters. This is unprecedented in Western history - Cold War active measures are back. They are using fake personas - "Guccifer2.0", "DCLeaks", and now "The Shadow Brokers" - the NSA weapons leakers - to destabilize the U.S.
Assange doesn't care about the truth. He only cares at getting back at Clinton. He's been handed no less than 4 separate leaks in the past few weeks (DNC emails, Soros foundation's intranet documents, NATO general's emails, and NSA cyber weapons). He's a whistleblower with a talented background in programming/hacking just like Snowden. He should be feeling suspicious about the large number of leaks regarding the U.S. But he hasn't publicly mentioned it - he knows it's Russia, but won't admit it. As an interesting aside, Guccifer2.0 claimed on Twitter that he gave Assange the DNC emails. If so, why is Assange spreading conspiracy theories about the dead DNC staffer, Seth Rich? Strange indeed.
Russian Propaganda in the West: Websites and Astroturfers
Russia is relying on naive Westerners to hate NATO and Soros. In other words, useful idiots. These people tend to be Conservative, Christian,, and conspiracy theorists to boot. They tend to be anti-establishment. Basically, much of the Republican base. Putin is popular among Republicans since he is viewed as a strongman and Conservative types are attracted to that. Furthermore, the Conservative media has portrayed Putin as a saviour of Christianity and in comparison to Obama, who they view as a secret Muslim Socialist/Communist from Kenya, he is respected much more by those on the Right. Russian Active Measure takes this into account. As an example, a well known anonymous hoaxer named "Sorcha Faal" - who claims to have access to the GRU/SVFSB - has since 2005 posted various hoax articles all favourable to Russia and pandering to the Right. Such examples include his/her article on "Putin declaring Black Lives Matter (BLM) a terrorist organization," something obviously false and never even confirmed. And yet, those who planted this story knew Republicans hate BLM since they are anti-cop and by extension, anti-authority, anathema to patriotic Rightists. Other examples include frequent commentary on Soros trying to reduce the birth rate and promote inter-ethnic marriage, and of course, the refugee crisis in Europe. The latter crisis is more applicable to Europe and Russian Active Measures has taken that into account. Countless viral news sites have popped up since 2014, all focused on the refugee crisis with anti-migrant commentary written by anonymous authors. These websites are extremely pro-Russian, anti-NATO, and frequently post anti-EU articles, along with conspiracy theories. These websites have popped up all over Europe in various languages. Here is a partial list of them, with analysis by a keen Russian disinformation-watcher, who analyzed the funding, founders, WHOIS, and social media links of these websites:
eadaily.com Analysis - Russian
southfront.org Analysis - Website analyzing Syrian and Ukrainian conflicts with a pro-Russian and anti-NATO/U.S. bent.
xxivek.net Analysis - Russian
geworld.ge Analysis - Greek
aeronet.cz Analysis - Czech Republic
strategic-culture.org Analysis - Created by Strategic Culture Foundation based in Moscow and aligned with the Centre for Research on Globalization in Canada, and with the Communist Party of China's 4th Media operation.
Here's a good article to read: The pro-Russian Disinformation Campaign in the Czech Republic and Slovakia
I see from reddit.com/The_Donald that you people already hate Soros (links often lead to Russian disinformation websites) and think NATO should turn into a protection racket, ignoring basic hegemonic theory and forward deployment strategy of the U.S. near Russia and China.
As an example, take a look at this conspiracy theory (and irrational) self post from /The_Donald:
Is it just me or does it seem kind of funny that whenever there's emails leaked of people in the Clintons circle a shooting or riot comes up to distract people right after the leaks happen
And look at one of the more popular comments:
Every single time. This distraction brought to you by George Soros
Political Control
One extremely far-right party in Hungary, called Jobbik, that is vehemently pro-Russian, was investigated by an independent Hungarian journalist, who wrote an article detailing the long-running recruitment of a Hungarian man, Béla Kovács, by Russia, after he married another KGB agent from Russia whom he met in Japan, when his father worked at the Hungarian embassy there. His new wife exposed him to the fact that he himself had been adopted and his real father was a KGB agent. Kovács then went to Russia and upon returning, had become pro-Russian and wealthy enough to fund a new Hungarian political party, called Jobbik, who he would later represent in the European Parliament. His father, who worked at the Hungarian embassy in Japan (a country thoroughly infiltrated by the Soviets due to its weak intelligence system) during the Cold War, was told by a stationed Hungarian intelligence officer that this woman his son had met was a long-running KGB agent that had previously married not only a Japanese nuclear scientist (presumably for access to nuclear technology) but also an Austrian underworld criminal (presumably for an Austrian passport to enable free travel through the EU's Schengen Zone). Most likely, she recruited Kovács to the KGB by telling him his father was a KGB agent and that he was adopted. The Jobbik party is extremely pro-Russian and borderline neo-Nazi. Russia has been accused of funding and developing it through Kovács. Both Kovács and his wife are under investigation.
Just goes to show how far back Russia has infiltrated European parties.
Read the fascinating investigation: A glorious match made in Russia
Russia is also using Alexander Dugin to cultivates ties with far-right parties in Europe:
Russia and Front National: Following the Money
Russian politicians building an international extreme right alliance
The far right "International Russian Conservative Forum" to take place in Russia
German Die Linke delegation visits right-wing terrorists in Eastern Ukraine
Greek left-wing SYRIZA forms a coalition with the pro-Kremlin far right
Vladimir Zhirinovsky's contacts with the European far right in the Yeltsin era
European far right politicians observe regional elections in Russia
British, French, Dutch, Spanish Hungarian, Slovakian, Serbian, and Czech far-right parties all connected to the Kremlin going back decades.
Here are some articles about Russia's usage of online trolls:
https://globalvoicesonline.org/2015/04/02/analyzing-kremlin-twitter-bots/
http://globalvoicesonline.org/2015/07/13/open-source-information-reveals-pro-kremlin-web-campaign/
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/07/magazine/the-agency.html
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/ap02/putin-kremlin-inside-russian-troll-house
http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/interview-with-ex-russian-internet-troll-lyudmila-savchuk-a-1036539.html
http://yle.fi/uutiset/webmaster_claims_pro-russia_trolls_stalk_finlands_biggest_russian_forum/8165524
http://kioski.yle.fi/omat/troll-piece-2-english
http://kioski.yle.fi/omat/this-is-what-pro-russia-internet-propaganda-feels-like
http://frivarld.se/nyheteenglish-summary-russian-psychological-warfare-latvia/
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/russia/11656043/My-life-as-a-pro-Putin-propagandist-in-Russias-secret-troll-factory.html
http://www.rferl.org/content/how-to-guide-russian-trolling-trolls/26919999.html
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31962644
Domestic disinformation exists too:
http://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2014/03/putin-war-propaganda-exposed-same-pro-russian-actress-used-in-five-different-ukrainian-reports/
http://www.forbes.com/sites/paulroderickgregory/2014/04/12/russian-tv-caught-red-handed-same-guy-same-demonstration-but-three-different-people-spy-bystander-heroic-surgeon/
An example of a fake Russian-created Twitter profile is this profile with 36K tweets in 6 months: https://twitter.com/FOXLADY9
Pro Pegida/ Pro Russia/ Anti Migrant Invasions/ Anti Islam/ I'm a Pinot Coloda Girl Love to Walk in the Rain/Enjoy a good Laugh/Clean Fun/Sassy/Outspoken
East Europe
Joined February 2016
Response by the West
This may sound cheesy, but the West doesn't do disinformation. Even during the Cold War, the side known for disinformation (Active Measures) was the Soviet block, not the West. Russia is an authoritarian country. It has no qualms paying thousands of people to spread pro-Kremlin propaganda online.
Europe has set up some sort of media monitoring centre, called "East StratCom Task Force", to counter Russian propaganda, that they created in March of 2015. It's one of the most pathetic and useless things I've even seen. All they do is make a weekly .pdf file of Russia's lies and conspiracy theories Russian trolls try to spread online. They then upload said pdf file to some random corner of the web and call that their "response". Passive but not active.
The U.S. isn't doing anything to debunk the disinformation the Russian trolls are spreading. We need to create a counter-narrative to Russia's claims. Part of this means we have to be on the right side of the truth. Whether you agree or not, the people of Crimea voted to join Russia and earlier polls going back to the 90s indicate they've always supported this. Whenever Obama says "Crimea was annexed", his statements are translated/subtitled to Russian and put on YouTube for the Russians to be outraged at, because in their view, they're being punished for democracy. This benefits Putin and demonizes the West's arguments, so whenever we try and prove Putin is corrupt, the Russian populace assumes we're lying and smearing him. They've been mentally conditioned to ignore criticism of Putin. Putin's approval ratings are the highest in the world. Before the Crimea issue, they were hovering in the 60s, not much higher than where Obama is now. Afterwards, in February 2014, they skyrocketed to the 90s range. We in the West must accept that our rhetoric and message are too harsh for Russians. We should tone down the Crimea rhetoric and instead, focus on other things that irk Russia, like corruption in Putin's party, or pro-Russian rebels in E. Ukraine committing heinous crimes/torture.
For now, read some of this history regarding Soviet Active Measures (relevant to our current situation):
Soviet Active Measures in the "Post-Cold War" Era 1988-1991
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2016.08.07 04:25 Hellrott [Sombra/ARG] Reproduced Results of Ana Video - I believe way past the salted Base64 is hidden here

1:16 From Ana Video (suffix SOMB) 
2E 2E 2E 7B 76 20 66 62 72 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 7B 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 7A 76 74 7E D4 R4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 67 78 73 72 65 2E 2E 2E 7B 76 20 66 62 72 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 7B 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 78 76 74 7E D4 R4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 G7 78 73 72 65 2E 2E 2E 78 76 20 66 62 72 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 78 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 7A 76 74 7E D4 R4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 67 78 73 72 65 2E 2E 2E 78 76 20 66 62 72 20 G3 7E 72 79 72 20 78 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 7A 76 74 7E D4 A4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 67 78 73 72 65 2E 2E 2E (64 78 7A 75)
2:11 From Ana Video (prefix RA) 
(65 76)2E 2E 2E 7B 76 20 66 62 72 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 7B 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 7A 76 74 7E D4 A4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 67 78 73 72 65 2E 2E 2E 7B 76 20 66 62 72 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 7B 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 7A 76 74 7E 04 A4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 67 78 73 72 65 2E 2E 2E 7B 76 20 66 62 72 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 7B 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 7A 76 74 7E 04 A4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 67 78 73 72 65 2E 2E 2E 7B 76 20 66 62 72 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 7B 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 7A 76 74 7E 04 A4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 67 78 73 72 65 2E 2E 2E
64 78 7A 75
S O M B
65 76
R A
 Hex Code (Repeats 4 times each hex set, 8 total, 1 byte relevant?) 
2E 2E 2E 7B 76 20 66 62 72 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 7B 76 20 7E 79 71 78 65 7A 76 74 7E D4 A4 79 2C 20 63 7E 72 79 72 20 72 7B 20 67 78 73 72 65
 Hex > ASCII 
{v fbr c~ryr {v ~yqxezvt~Ô¤y, c~ryr r{ gxsre...
 XOR w/ 23 As Constant* 
la que tiene la información; tiene el poder
She who has the information; (she)has the power
Observations 
-Data repeats itself 8 times total over 2 messages, 2 sets of 4 bites is a byte, how does that connect?
-SOMB appears first chronologically, proceeded by RA. Relevant? *Sombra is known as an unreleased hero and would be the 23rd hero, hence 23 being the constant for translation
-Connections with Anubis/Egyptian gods established. Ra is extremely prominent in Egyptian culture, Thoth is the god of knowledge/wisdom, connected?
-Sombra is Mexican and Sombra translates to Shadow. Sombra's only known connections are to Reaper aka Gabriel Reyes (Reyes is a common Mexican surname that translates literally to Kings, important to remember for next points?)
 Going Off The Rails Here... 
-Relevance of pyramids? It is common knowledge that the Egyptians were far ahead of their time astronomically speaking, the night sky and constellations are VERY important in Egpytian religion. Pyramids are (theorized) to be tied with Orion's belt, Orion's arrow points to the north star. If you use the north on the compass (seen here http://wiki.gamedetectives.net/images/d/d7/Overwatch_map.jpg), north is Torbjorn. Torb has the Tre Kronor tattooed on his arm, 3 crowns (kings/Reyes?). I have no idea how this is connected or if it matters, interesting coincidence if unreleated.
-In Mexican culture, the 3 Kings (remember another name for Orion's Belt, which we've connected through the Pyramids potentially) is an important icon. Keep in mind Reyes is Reaper's last name and Sombra has only spoken in Spanish so far. "Wednesday marks Three Kings Day, the last of the 12 days of Christmas and an opportunity for people around the world to feast and celebrate their faith. Observed annually on Jan. 6, Three Kings Day is a Christian holiday also known as Día De Los Reyes Magos and Epiphany."
Now this is obviously a big reach, but the Egyptian and Mexican cultures are clearly tied together with the information we have so far about Sombra. Just connected the dots and that lead me on the path of insanity described above. The Pyramid is seen on Dorado (the only map in Mexico we see in Overwatch) and is where we deliver the reactor payload in the game itself. The pyramid belongs to LumeriCo, a company seen in Dorado with 3 Pyramids (there are 3 Great Pyramids) and supplies Mexico and presumably many other places with power.
Direct all guesses to the brute force method of cracking the salted base64 here: http://axxim.net/ow/gol-guesse
submitted by Hellrott to Overwatch [link] [comments]


2016.07.13 17:14 PelotonMod [Results Thread] 2016 Tour de France (2.UWT) - Stage 11 [Flat]

Last KM
Results
Reports
Other Media
thank you herhor for the Streamables
Interviews
Other
submitted by PelotonMod to peloton [link] [comments]


2013.10.30 18:04 koine_lingua How much "fallibility" are you willing to accept - from the evangelists, Paul, or even Jesus himself: and/or exactly how inspired were the earliest Christians?

[Please ignore this post's title; there was originally a lot more material relating to the title itself, but I've now removed it to make room for the stuff focusing purely on ancient interpretations of the age of the earth/humanity.]
Jews and Christians from about the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE virtually unanimously thought that the world was only a few thousand years old. Despite the odd outlier like Philo of Alexandria - who conceded that it was not possible to locate the precise date of creation - most extant writings we have from this period that address this issue do put forth an age for the universe/earth.
Other chronological reckonings (both inner- and extra-Biblical) give between ~440 years (LXX 1 Kings 6:1; MT: 480) and ~600 years (Josephus, Against Apion 2.19: "Solomon himself built the sanctuary 612 years after the Judeans left Egypt"; cf. AJ 20.230, though 8.61 has 592 years) from the actual exodus itself until the time of Solomon. Africanus has an even higher number (744?). (Clement: "from Isaac to the grant of the promised inheritance, 616 years." Also see below on David.)
Demetrius does, however, say that "From the time when the ten tribes were taken as prisoners from Samaria to Ptolemy IV, 573 years nine months." Ptolemy IV was ~220 BCE; but Demetrius was only ~50 years too long here, as the captivity is now dated ~740-730 BCE.
After this, "from the time that the captivity from Jerusalem occurred [to Ptolemy IV] there were 338 years and three months." (338 years before Ptolemy IV, however, would give us 558 BCE: still 30 years after the "captivity of Jerusalem.")
Since there were a little over 200 years between Solomon and the Assyrian captivity, we can suppose that Demetrius would have calculated something like 5,300-5,500 years (3,600 [until Jacob in Egypt] + ~500 [Jacob in Egypt + Egypt + wilderness] + 400-600 [exodus to Solomon] + 200 [Solomon to first captivity] + 600 [to Ptolemy IV]) from the creation until his time in the late 3rd century BCE.
Jubilees:
  • 2,450 years from creation to entry into Canaan (50 jubilees). To Moses in Jub. 50:4: "49 jubilees from the time of Adam until today, and one week and..."
See further https://www.reddit.com/UnusedSubforMe/comments/5crwrw/test2/dgp2zbb/
Scott, "The Chronological System of the Book of Jubilees":
This trajectory presupposes the destruction of the First Temple in 2940 am, which is the same dating of the event as in the Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks (6 ‘weeks’×490 years/‘week’ = 2940 years [1Enoch 93:8]).
. . .
the interval from Enoch’s entrance into the primeval Temple to the destruction of the First Temple (i.e., 7 ‘otot’ cycles) is the same as the time from the destruction of the First Temple to the establishment of the eschatological Temple on Mt. Zion (i.e., another 7 ‘otot’ cycles), thus putting the establishment of the eschatological Temple at 4998 am (2940+2058 years = 4998).
. . .
by the principle of rigorous symmetry, we may expect that the reentry into the Land takes place 490 years after the destruction of the First Temple, that is, in 3430 am (2940+490 = 3430) = 70 jubilees/490 weeks from the creation of the world. The same date marks the beginning of the restoration in the Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks (7 ‘weeks’×490 years/‘week’ = 3430 am [1Enoch 93:9–10]).
. . .
Jubilees’ highly schematic chronology appropriates essential elements from the equally schematic Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks (e.g., the all-important date for the destruction of the First Temple and the periodization in units of 490 years), while adapting the Apocalypse’s overall chronology to conform to a fundamentally different conception of history (e.g., one that is more pointedly ‘Enochic’ and priestly in orientation, more bilaterally symmetrical, and 980 [490×2] years longer [5880–4900 = 980]).
http://www.robibradshaw.com/chapter3.htm ?
Assumption of Moses
qui est bis millesimus et quingentesimus annus a creatura orbis terrae
which is the two thousand five-hundredth year since the creation of the earth
(Tromp follows Clemen, reconstruct "...book of the prophecy of Moses, which was given in the 120th year of his life — which is..." (Tromp, 132-33)
orbis terrarum = https://www.reddit.com/UnusedSubforMe/comments/5crwrw/test2/dgp5s6t/
Lists:
The article "The Funeral of the Mass," ch. 7, in Spirit of the 19th Century -- specifically the section "In What Year of the World did the Saviour become Incarnate?" -- has a very long list of proposed dates by different people: Part 1 and Part 2
Dundee, 1847: https://imgur.com/TU0GXEA
Toward 18th and 19th centuries: https://imgur.com/loP136f
(Pezron = 5,872 BCE; unsourced old EncycBrit, 5,270 years for LXX)
(J. Jackson: 5426 BCE; W. Hales: 5411 BCE)
Fotheringham, The Chronology of the Old Testament, 106 = 5086?
Official Orthodox use of Anno Mundi
Alphonse Des Vignoles asserted in the preface to his Chronologie de l’Histoire Sainte (Chronology of Sacred History, Berlin 1738), that he collected upwards of two-hundred different calculations, the shortest of which reckons only 3483 years between the creation of the world and the commencement of the vulgar era and the longest 6984.
Professor Fr. Arsenius John Baptist Vuibert (S.S.), a 19th-century historian, observed that Biblical Chronologies are uncertain due to discrepancies in the figures in Genesis and other methodological factors, accounting for hundreds of different chronologies being assigned by historians. In the case of the Fathers of the Sixth Ecumenical Council, who assigned 5509 BC. as the date of the creation of man, he writes that it was in response to the emperor's wishes to fix an era or convenient starting point for historical computation. Therefore, it was a decision of mere historical convenience, not respecting either faith or morals, which are what is truly of intrinsic value in the Scriptures.[39] Having made this disclaimer, he settles on the Benedictine Chronology of 4963 BC for the purposes of his history.
Justin Martyr, 1 Apology 31:
προεφητεύθη δέ, πρὶν ἢ φανῆναι αὐτόν, ἔτεσι ποτὲ μὲν πεντακισχιλίοις, ποτὲ δὲ τρισχιλίοις, ποτὲ δὲ δισχιλίοις, καὶ πάλιν χιλίοις καὶ ἄλλοτε ὀκτακοσίοις· κατὰ γὰρ τὰς διαδοχὰς τῶν γενῶν ἕτεροι καὶ ἕτεροι ἐγένοντο προφῆται.
And [we found predicted also] that He would send certain persons to every nation to make known these things, and that the former Gentiles rather [than Jews] would believe in Him. He was foretold, in truth, before He actually appeared, first five thousand years before,5 then three thousand, then two thousand, then one thousand, and, finally, eight hundred.
  • Epistle of Barnabas: "Therefore, my children, in six days, that is in 6000 years, the universe will be brought to its end."
Clement: "From Adam to the death of Commodus, 5784 years two months twelve days." Mosshammer writes that
Clement himself (Stromata 1. 21. 144) counted 5784 years from Adam to the death of Commodus in AD 212
(Yet Commodus died in 192? Clement had prefaced this by saying "The total from Augustus to the death of Commodus, 222." Augustus began to reign in 27 BCE, so 222 years after that would be ~195 CE. We can estimate, then, that for Clement creation was ~5590 BCE.)
Clement mentioning Eupolemus:
Again, Eupolemus in a work of similar scope says that the total number of years from Adam to the fifth year of king Demetrius ( = the twelfth year of Ptolemy's reign in Egypt) comes to 5149 years.654
(This is Demetrius I Soter of Syria, who reigned 162-151 BCE. The fifth year is 157 BCE, and thus for Eupolemus, creation = 5,306 BCE.)
Following this, Clement says (still quoting Eupolemus) that "From the point when Moses led the Jews out of Egypt to the same point comprises in all 1580 years." "The same point" being 157 BCE, this would place the year of the exodus ~1737 BCE. On a high estimate for Demetrius the Chronographer, there would have been ~1440 years (~40 + 600 + 200 [Solomon to first captivity] + ~600 [to Ptolemy]) from the exodus to the latter part of the 3rd century BCE, placing the former ~1,670 BCE; on a low estimate, ~1250 years, putting the exodus at 1,470 BCE.
  • Josephus says that according to Moses, there were 2,262 years (δισχιλίων διακοσίων ἑξηκονταδύο) from "the birth of Adam, the first man" until the flood (AJ 1.82). Apparently Eusebius, in the Chronicon, has 2,242. Clement of Alexandria has 2,148; and the Seder Olam (following the Hebrew tradition naturally) calculates a lower number of 1,656 years here, which is replicated in Genesis Rabbah 36.
    At the beginning of Against Apion, Josephus said that his Antiquities contains the "history of 5,000 years" (πεντακισχιλίων ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸν ἱστορίαν) (until his current time, in the late 1st century CE). Also, Clement:
(2) Flavius Josephus, the Jew, who compiled Researches into Jewish History, says in his chronology that from Moses to David is a period of 585 years, from David to the second year of Vespasian's reign 1179 years.684
Clement:
(2) From Adam to the Flood comprises 2148 years four days; from Shem to Abraham, 1250 years; from Isaac to the grant of the promised inheritance, 616 years. (3) Then 640 from the Judges to Samuel, 463 years seven months. (4) After the Judges 572 years six months ten days of monarchy. (5) After this period, 235 years of Persian monarchy, and then 312 years eighteen days of Macedonian monarchy up to the ..
4 Ezra: Common Era begin ~AM 5560?
  • Julian Africanus' influential chronography from the 2nd century gave a somewhat similar number, of about 5,500 years from the creation until the time of Jesus. This is followed by Hippolytus of Rome, who wrote that there were 5,738 years from Adam until the 13th year of the reign of the emperor (Severus) Alexander, in 235 CE. (For Hippolytus Greek text: "Dies aber zusammengerechnet")
(Panodorus of Alexandria and Annianus of Alexandria, both around the early 5th century CE, give ~5,900 years from the creation up until the end of the 4th century: or, more specifically, 5,493 and 5,500 years up to Christ, respectively.) Syncellus goes as far as to pinpoint exactly "5,533 years and 40 days" from Adam to the ascension. (Also, the important Dionysius Exiguus follows suit.)
  • The 2nd century Patriarch of Antioch, Theophilus, challenges the chronology of the Greeks, who absurdly give the universe/earth a wildly exaggerated age of 150,000 years old – instead settling, as did his predecessors, for a period of approximately 5,700 years (5,698) from the creation until his current time (mid 2nd century). Cf. To Autolycus, 3.16, 26, 29; e.g.
16
I want to give you a more accurate account of the different historical periods, so that you may see that our teaching is not modern or fictitious (μυθώδης) but older and more true than the uncertain writings of poets and other authors who wrote in uncertainty.
οἱ μὲν γὰρ τὸν κόσμον ἀγένητον εἰπόντες εἰς τὸ ἀπέραντον ἐχώρησαν, ἕτεροι δὲ γενητὸν φήσαντες εἶπον ὡς ἤδη μυριάδας ἐτῶν πεντεκαίδεκα ἐληλυθέναι καὶ τρισχίλια ἑβδομήκοντα πέντε ἔτη. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Αἰγύπτιος ἱστορεῖ. Πλάτων δέ, ὁ δοκῶν Ἑλλήνων σοφώτερος γεγενῆσθαι, εἰς πόσην φλυαρίαν ἐχώρησεν!
For some, maintaining that the world was uncreated, went into infinity; and others, asserting that it was created, said that already 153,075 years had passed. This is stated by Apollonius the Egyptian. And Plato, who is esteemed to have been the wisest of the Greeks, into what nonsense did he run?¨
28:
Ὁμοῦ ἀπὸ κτίσεως κόσμου συνάγονται τὰ πάντα ἔτη εχϞε´ καὶ οἱ ἐπιτρέχοντες μῆνες καὶ ἡμέραι
All the years from the creation of the world amount to a total of 5698 years, and the odd months and days.
29:
Τῆς μὲν οὖν ἀρχαιότητος τῶν παρ' ἡμῖν πραγμάτων καὶ τῶν χρόνων τὸν πάντα ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὸ δύνατον οἶμαι τὰ νῦν ἀκριβῶς εἰρῆσθαι. εἰ γὰρ καὶ ἔλαθεν ἡμᾶς χρόνος, εἰ τύχοι εἰπεῖν ἔτη ν´ ἢ ρ´ ἢ καὶ ς´, οὐ μέντοι μυριάδες ἢ χιλιάδες ἐτῶν, καθὼς προειρήκασιν Πλάτων καὶ Ἀπολλώνιος καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ ψευδῶς ἀναγράψαντες. ὅπερ ἡμεῖς τὸ ἀκριβὲς ἴσως ἀγνοοῦμεν, ἁπάντων τῶν ἐτῶν τὸν ἀριθμόν, διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀναγεγράφθαι ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις τοὺς ἐπιτρέχοντας μῆνας καὶ ἡμέρας
I think I have now, according to my ability, accurately discoursed both of the godlessness of your practices, and of the whole number of the epochs of history. For if even a chronological error has been committed by us, of, e.g., 50 or 100, or even 200 years, yet not of thousands and tens of thousands, as Plato and Apollonius and other mendacious authors have hitherto written. And perhaps our knowledge of the whole number of the years is not quite accurate, because the odd months and days are not set down in the sacred books.
Landes:
for a recent study of Theophilus' chronography which demonstrates. how readily it conformed to the symmetries of eschatological calculations, see Oliver Nicholson, 'The Source of the Dates in Lactantius' Divine Institutes' Journal of Theological Studies, NS 36:2 (1985), pp.291-310. According to Grumel, Clement placed the Creation in 5600 BCE (Chronographie, p.24f). Martin Werner argues that the earliest Christian era was 6000 BCE (The Formation of Christian Dogma (London 1957) p.38).
  • Origen, in Contra Celsum (1.19-20), writes
    ...Celsus, secretly wishing to attack the Mosaic cosmogony which indicates that the world is not yet ten thousand years old but is much less than this (ὁ Κέλσος λεληθότως βουλόμενος διαβαλεῖν τὴν κατὰ Μωϋσέα κοσμοποιΐαν, ἐμφαίνοντα μηδέπω μυρίων ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸν ἔχειν τὸν κόσμον ἀλλὰ πολλῷ τούτου λειπόμενον), agrees with those who say that the world is uncreated, although he hides his real intention . . . Nevertheless unintentionally Celsus fell into proclaiming [as is truly the case] that the world is quite recent, and not even ten thousand years old
    Elsewhere Origen interprets the seven weeks of Daniel 9 as referring to 4,900 years from Adam to Titus (Comm. Matt. 24.14f.): see here: https://www.reddit.com/UnusedSubforMe/comments/5crwrw/test2/dgr3bg1/.
Some unverified stuff:
Papias, Methodius, Commodianus, Melito?
Origen, A.D. 230 [sic: Tertullian], states that “our Lord descended from Heaven for the salvation of man, 6000 years after the Almighty had formed the first of the human race.” . . . Hesychius, a contemporary of Jerome, says, “the incarnation of the Redeemer took place nearly 6000 years from the foundation of the world.” Ambrose, bishop of Milan, A.D. 375, says, “but now more than 6000 years are counted from the foundation of the world.” Ephrem Syrus, A.D. 378, says, “the Saviour was to appear after 5500 years, [from creation,] to deliver man.” Augustine, A.D. 398, says, “since from the first man, 6000 years are not yet completed.” Chrysostom, his contemporary, says, “after 5000 years and more, Christ came as the substitute of our race.” Sulpicius Severus, A.D. 400, makes the date of the Nativity A.M. 5469, according to Clinton. Annianus A.D. 405, Syncellus A.D. 792, Eutychius A.D. 937, and a host of later writers, adopt the epoch A.M. 5500, following Africanus. . . . the Almighty had formed the first of the human race.” . . . and the meeting of the council, called “Synodus in Trullo,” A.D. 691, reckoned it A.M. 5508
(Elsewhere it's claimed more specifically that Hesychius calculated 5,967 years from Adam to the 42nd year of Augustine.)
(For Sulpicius, "His last total is 4303 at the death of Sampson (I, 29, 8).")
(Trullo: συνορῶμεν ὥστε τοὺς μὲν δυσί γάμοις περιπαρέντας, καὶ μέχρι τῆς πεντεκαιδεκάτης τοῦ διελθόντος Ἰανουαρίου μηνός, τῆς παρελθούσης τετάρτης Ἰνδικτιῶνος, ἔτους ἐξακισχιλιοστοῦ ἐκατοστοῦ ἐννάτου, δουλωθέντας τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, καὶ μὴ ἐκνῆψαι ταύτης προελομένους, καθαιρέσει κανονικῇ ὑποβαλεῖν: "we decree, that those who are involved in a second marriage, and have been slaves to sin up to the fifteenth of the past month of January, in the past fourth Indiction, the 6109th [6199th?] year, and have not resolved to repent of it, be subjected to canonical deposition." 6199 - 691 = 5508.)
(See also on the Roman Martyrology below.)
  • Cyprian (early/mid 3rd century): Sex millia annorum iam paene complentur, ex quo hominem diabolus impugnat: "Almost six thousand years are now being fulfilled since the devil first attacked man." (Epistola ad Fortunatum de Exhortatione Martyrii 2)
    See more on Cyprian here
  • The apocryphal Apocalypse of Thomas (probably written somewhere from the 3rd or 4th century) forecasts an oddly specific 450 years between the ascension and the second coming. If the author thought that Jesus was born 5,500 years after the beginning, this would give an even 6,000 years from beginning to end. The gap of 50 years here (5,500 + 450 = 5,950) might be accounted for in light of the early tradition that Jesus lived to be 50. Irenaeus insists on this, "as the Gospel and all the elders who lived with John, the Lord's disciple, in Asia testify that John delivered this tradition to them.")
  • Eusebius, in his Chronicon, has 4,680 years from the creation until the second year of Darius (which is a chronological marker in Haggai 1.1 and Zechariah 1.1), or 520 BCE. Up unto the beginning of the Common Era, this is 5,200 years. (Syncellus writes that Eusebius erred in "counting only 5,526 years from Adam to the 20th year of Constantine." The first year of Constantine's reign was 306 CE.) Jerome followed suit here (technically 5,199 years), which was also taken up by Victor of Tunnana.
  • Lactantius:
In the early 4th century, Lactantius affirmed that 'those who write about time teach us how many years are completed since the Creation, and although they vary..., all nevertheless expect not more than 200 years [until the completion of the 6000 years]
Institutes 7.14:
Plato et multi alii philosophorum, cum ignorarent originem rerum...
Plato and many others of the philosophers, since they were ignorant of the origin of all things, and of that primal period at which the world was made, said that many thousands of ages had passed since this beautiful arrangement of the world was completed; and in this they perhaps followed the Chaldeans, who, as Cicero has related in his first book respecting divination, foolishly say that they possess comprised in their memorials four hundred and seventy thousand years; in which matter, because they thought that they could not be convicted, they believed that they were at liberty to speak falsely. But we, whom the Holy Scriptures instruct to the knowledge of the truth, know the beginning and the end of the world, respecting which we will now speak in the end of our work, since we have explained respecting the beginning in the second book. Therefore let the philosophers, who enumerate thousands of ages from the beginning of the world, know that the six thousandth year is not yet completed, and that when this number is completed the consummation must take place, and the condition of human affairs be remodeled for the better, the proof of which must first be related, that the matter itself may be plain. God completed the world and this admirable work of nature in the space of six days, as is contained in the secrets of Holy Scripture, and consecrated the seventh day, on which He had rested from His works. But this is the Sabbath-day, which in the language of the Hebrews received its name from the number, whence the seventh is the legitimate and complete number. For there are seven days, by the revolutions of which in order the circles of years are made up. . . .1
  • Hilarianus, ~397 CE: Jesus dies AM 5,530.
  • Augustine, City of God XII 11 (section titled De falsitate eius historiae, quae multa millia annorum praeteritis temporibus ascribit, "On the falseness of the history which ascribes many thousands of years tο times gone by"):
    Fallunt eos etiam quaedam mendacissimae litterae, quas perhibent in historia temporum multa annorum milia continere, cum ex litteris sacris ab institutione hominis nondum completa annorum sex milia computemus. Vnde ne multa disputem quem ad modum illarum litterarum, in quibus longe plura annorum milia referuntur, uanitas refellatur et nulla in illis rei huius idonea reperiatur auctoritas
Such men are also misled by certain wholly untruthful writings which purport to contain the history of many thousands of years of time. For we compute from the sacred writings that six thousand years have not yet passed since the creation of man [ab institutione hominis]. Hence, the writings which make reference to far more thousands of years than there have been are vain, and contain no trustworthy authority on the subject.
(Compare Theophilus, "All the years from the creation of the world," also on Apollonius the Egyptian, etc.)
13:
hoc etiam de prima hominis conditione responderim, propter eos, qui similiter mouentur, cur homo per innumerabilia atque infinita retro tempora creatus non sit tamque sero sit creatus, ut minus quam sex milia sint annorum, ex quo esse coepisse in sacris litteris inuenitur.
There are some people who complain when we claim that man was created so late. They say that he must have been created countless and infinite ages ago, and not, as is recorded in scripture, less than 6,000 years ago.
(Translations by Dyson)
City of God XVIII 40 (section De Aegyptiorum mendacissima uanitate, quae antiquitati scientiae suae centum milia adscribit annorum).
Frustra itaque uanissima praesumtione garriunt quidam dicentes, ex quo Aegyptus rationem siderum conprehendit, amplius quam centum annorum milia numerari...
Consequently, how utterly unconvincing is the presumptuous prattling of those who maintain that Egyptian astronomical science has a history of more than 100,000 years!…we know from Holy Writ…6,000 years have not yet elapsed from the days of Adam, the first man, should we not ridicule, rather than bother to refute, those who strive to convince us of a temporal duration so different and so utterly contrary to this established truth?…We, on the other hand, have the support of divine authority in the history of our religion. Accordingly, whatever in secular histories runs counter to it we do not hesitate to brand it as wholly false…. (transl. by Walsh)
XX: "six thousand years stretching from the creation of man"
Genealogies in Genesis: "Whoever calls these facts into question undermines all that we believe, and his opinions should be resolutely cast out of the minds of the faithful" (De Gen. ad. Litt. 9.11.19)
Elsewhere, Augustine:
if we look carefully into Church history, we find that the Apostle John died long before the completion of 5,500 years from the beginning of the human race
(To Hesychius, "On the End of the World")
Mook:
Lest it be argued on the basis of Augustine’s statements that Adam was created less than 6,000 years ago but the rest of creation is much older than that, it should be remembered that Augustine believed that God created everything, at least seminally, in an instant
Landes:
At the sack of Rome in 410. Augustine tells us that some exclaimed: 'Behold, from Adam all the years have passed, and behold, the 6000 years are completed ... and now comes the Day of Judgment' (Sermo 1 13, 8; PL 38 c.576).
Isidore of Pelusium (late 4th / early 5th): birth of Christ in AM 5,336 (purportedly)
  • Orosius, in the early 5th century: his Historiae adversus paganos "describes an ever more Christian, and hence improving world, aetate 5724" (Landes). Orosius on Phoroneus? Also
5 sunt autem ab Adam primo homine usque ad Ninum magnum ut dicunt regem, quando natus est Abraham...
Now from Adam, the first man, to the King Ninus, so-called the 'Great,' when Abraham was born, 3,184 years passed, which either have been omitted or unknown by all historians. But from Ninus or Abraham to Caesar Augustus, that is, to the birth of Christ, which was in the forty-second year of the Caesar's rule, when the Gates of Janus were closed, for peace had been made with the Parthians and wars had ceased in the whole world, 2015 years have passed...
Landes:
That AM II dominates every major and most minor 5th century chronologies attests to Augustine's and Jerome's success in changing Latin historiography.
Epiphanius, in the latter 4th century, places Jesus' birth in the 5509th year ("coincidentally with the 5509th year"). This is also reflected later:
The Chronicon Paschale uses a year 1 that began during 5510/9 BC (see Ch. 13). Later Byzantine chroniclers follow a system in which the year 1 corresponded to 5509/8 BC. (Mosshammer)
There's an interesting text in the Talmud: b. Sanhedrin 97b:
רב חנן בר תחליפא לרב יוסף 15 מצאתי אדם אחד ובידו מגילה אחת כתובה אשורית ולשון קדש אמרתי לו 16 זו מניין לך 17 אמר לי 18 לחיילות של רומי נשכרתי ובין גינזי רומי מצאתיה וכתוב בה 19 לאחר ד' אלפים ומאתים ותשעים ואחד שנה לבריאתו של עולם העולם יתום
R. Hanan b. Tahlifa sent [word] to R. Joseph: I once met a man who possessed a scroll written in Hebrew in Assyrian characters.7 I said to him: 'Whence has this come to thee?' He replied, 'I hired myself as a mercenary in the Roman army, and found it amongst the Roman archives. In it is stated that four thousand, two hundred and thirty-one years after the creation the world will be orphaned.
Further,
[As to the years following,] some of them will be spent in the war of the great sea monsters,10 and some in the war of Gog and Magog, and the remaining [period] will be the Messianic era, whilst the Holy One, blessed be He, will renew his world only after seven thousand years.' R. Abba the son of Raba said: The statement was after five thousand years.
Irshai, “Dating the Eschaton":
We may loosely compare b. Sanh. 97b, where Elijah asserts to Rab Judah, the brother of R. Salia the pious, that a messianic era lasting one jubilee will begin after 84 jubilees (= 4116 or 4200 years, depending on whether a jubilee is reckoned as 49 or 50 years), making a total world age of 85 jubilees (= 4165 or 4250 years).182 Similarly, Eusebius’ Chronicle indicates that 29 ce (the year of Jesus’ death) was the ‘beginning of the 81st jubilee of the world according to the Hebrews’ (principium LXXXI iobelaei secundum Hebraeos),183 which for Eusebius may mark the beginning of the messianic era.184
Fulgentius (late 5th, early 6th c.):
Thus with our letters, if you count by them as far as the last one, z, the total comes to five hundred, whence twelve times five hundred shows the age of the existing world, but if twelve times twelve is taken it must show the span of human life; again, if you reckoned twelve times twenty-three, you would discover the number nine for the months and six for the days, the precise period for man as he comes forth from the womb, as taken from the inception of birth, whence also the span of death may be indicated.
. . .
Thus the first age of the world is to be reckoned from the first man, the unfortunate who scorned the Lord's decree
  • In the early 7th century, Isidore of Seville suggested creation in AM 5196 (AM 5210 as 56th year Augustus?) (Total 5857 years, up to 10th year of Recceswinth?)
Notes on Isidore: Tower of Babel built in AM 2643?; AM 3344: Jacob born, Argives begin; AM 3434: Joseph born, Phoroneus gives laws; AM 4044: Samson.
  • Later in the 7th century, Julian of Toledo: 5325 AM
  • The English saint/historian Bede (early 8th century) rolls things back by having 3,952 from creation to Christ. Of course this would set a certain precedent, leading to the well-known estimates (starting around the early Modern period) of 3,960 years by Luther (Supputatio annorum mundi), followed (more or less) by Kepler, Newton, and Ussher. (Also, as a fun note, in 1609 Thomas Lydiat arrived at Ussher's well known date of 4004 BCE, in his Emendatio temporum -- Ussher's wouldn't be published until ~1650.) Also, Maimonides and al-Biruni place the creation in approximately 3,760 BCE.
Hughes on Bede:
Bede, writing in the early part of the 8th century, calculated from the Vulgate that there were only 3952 years from creation to the birth of Christ. This caused Bede to be accused of heresy, but his chronology was subsequently adopted by the western church, particularly after the expected end of the world failed to materialize, and Bede's date for the creation of the world remained the accepted date for over eight centuries in the west.
Nothaft:
Bede's famous involvement in a controversy surrounding the Vulgate chronology, which rejuvenated the world by more than 1200 years, has led ...
Di Segni, "The Use of Chronological Systems in Sixth-Eighth Centuries Palestine"
Nicephorus (8th): creation in 5,700 BCE (purportedly). Further,
The Alexandrian Era of 25 March 5493 BC was adopted by church fathers such as Maximus the Confessor and Theophanes the Confessor,
9th-11th: the Annals of Hildesheim: origin of Egyptians in AM 2379? (Nahor?)
(Bede: AM 1878: Assyrians; Belus... Nahor)
Ekkehard of Aura: Argos
Landes:
In the early 11th century CE, the rare historian to mention AM II, Ademar of Chabannes, denounced it as false.
Lambert of Saint-Omer (late 11th, early 12th):
Why did Lambert, upon adding his note from Isidore of Seville to his diagram, ''The Ages of the World until King Godfrey,'' decide to make the first Five Ages of history 41 years longer? Why did he demonstrate in the diagram that the ages had lasted for 5,217 years and then argue in the margins that they had endured for 5,258?
. . .
The number 3,342 is Lambert's own, for Orosius states clearly that 3,184 years passed between the creation of the world and Babylon's foundation.
Michael the Syrian (late 12th):
Quelques-uns fixent 5500 ans' depuis Adam jusqu'à la naissance de NotreSeigneur. Hippolyte, Jean2 et Mar Jacques, adoptent cela. Et de fait nous trouvons qu'Eusèbe l'accepte. Dans un autre endroit il dit qu'il y a eu 5232 ans depuis Adam jusqu'à la Passion de Notre-Seigneur.
D'autres disent : 5320; Africanus: 5532; les Hébreux : 4000; les Samaritains : 4365; les Syriens : 4156; et selon le calcul admis par plusieurs : 5519.
13th cent:
Alfonso X of Castile commissioned the Alfonsine tables, composed of astronomical data based on observation, from which the date of the creation has been calculated to be either 6984 BC or 6484 BC
Giles of Lessines (13th):
discusses no less than nine different estimates on the basis of the Hebrew version alone and nine further ones for the [LXX]. See Giles . . . Summa de temporibus... (Nothaft)
Martin of Opava (13th):
quoting Orosius, reckons 4484 years from the Creation to the foundation of Rome, and 715 from the foundation of Rome to the birth of Christ. Both systems amount to 5199 years, “annos bis centum minus uno millia
The Requerimiento, 1513:
De parte del rey, don Fernando, y de su hija, doña Juana, reina de Castilla y León, domadores de pueblos bárbaros, nosotros, sus siervos, os notificamos y os hacemos saber, como mejor podemos, que Dios nuestro Señor, uno y eterno, creó el cielo y la tierra, y un hombre y una mujer, de quien nos y vosotros y todos los hombres del mundo fueron y son descendientes y procreados, y todos los que después de nosotros vinieran. Mas por la muchedumbre de la generación que de éstos ha salido desde hace cinco mil y hasta más años que el mundo fue creado, fue necesario que los unos hombres fuesen por una parte y otros por otra, y se dividiesen por muchos reinos y provincias, que en una sola no se podían sostener y conservar.
On behalf of the King, Don Fernando, and of Doña Juana I, his daughter, Queen of Castille and León, subduers of the barbarous nations, we their servants notify and make known to you, as best we can, that the Lord our God, Living and Eternal, created the Heaven and the Earth, and one man and one woman, of whom you and we, all the men of the world at the time, were and are descendants, and all those who came after and before us. But, on account of the multitude which has sprung from this man and woman in the five thousand years since the world was created, it was necessary that some men should go one way and some another, and that they should be divided into many kingdoms and provinces, for in one alone they could not be sustained.
Roman Martyrology (Martyrologium Romanum), ~1580-1590, for Christmas Eve:
Anno a creatione mundi, quando in principio Deus creavit caelum et terram, quinquies millesimo centesimo nonagesimo nono...
In the 5199th year of the creation of the world, from the time when in the beginning God created heaven and earth; from the flood, the 2957th year; from the birth of Abraham, the 2015th year; from Moses and the going-out of the people of Israel from Egypt, the 1510th year; from the anointing of David as king, the 1032nd year; in the 65th week according to the prophecy of Daniel; in the 194th Olympiad; from the founding of the city of Rome, the 752nd year; in the 42nd year of the rule of Octavian Augustus
(For this date, cf. Eusebius and Jerome.)
Mary of Agreda (17th century), from her Mistica Ciudad de Dios (3.138):
Sucedió esto en viernes á 25 de Marzo al romper del alba, ó á los crepúsculos de la luz, á la misma hora que fué formado nuestro primer padre Adán, y en el año de la creación del mundo de 5199, como lo cuenta la Iglesia romana en el Martirologio, gobernada por el Espíritu Santo. Esta cuenta es la verdadera y cierta; y así se me ha declarado, preguntándolo por orden de la obediencia. Y conforme á esto el mundo fué criado por el mes de Marzo, que corresponde á su principio de la creación
[Jesus' was conceived] in springtime on the twenty-fifth of March, at break or dawning of the day, in the same hour, in which our first father Adam was made and in the year of the creation of the world 5199, which agrees also with the count of the Roman Church in her Martyrology under the guidance of the Holy Ghost. This reckoning is the true and certain one, as was told me, when I inquired at command of my superiors. Conformable to this the world was created in the month of March, which corresponds to the beginning of creation.
Cregan-Reid on the discovery of Gilgamesh:
Mary Bennett, novelist and reviewer, excitably reported the importance of Smith’s discoveries and wrote two articles for the Dublin University Magazine on their implications for contemporary understandings of history: ‘the dynasty that preceded that event [the deluge] would place the commencement of the historical period about B.C. 5150. The legend of the Flood is much older than that, for it was composed in the mythological period.’
Calvin: "the world, now declining to its ultimate end, has not yet attained six thousand years." (Institutes 1:14:1)
Profane men, I admit in the matter of predestination abruptly seize upon something to carp, rail, bark or scoff at. But if their shamelessness deters us, we shall have to keep secret the chief doctrines of the faith, almost none of which they or their like leave untouched by blasphemy. An obstinate person would be no less insolently puffed up on hearing that within the essence of God there are three Persons than if he were told that God foresaw what would happen to man when he created him. And they will not refrain from guffaws when they are informed that but little more than five thousand years have passed since the creation of the universe, for they ask why God's power was idle or asleep for so long. (Institutes 3:21:4)
During his Leiden years he completed his magnum opus, the Thesaurus temporum (1606). This hefty tome offered a precise date for every major event in Christian history: the Creation, Fall, Flood, Tower of Babel, Joseph’s flight to Egypt, and all the other episodes in the history of God’s chosen people. In itself this was nothing new, as chronologies had been compiled on the basis of the Bible before, but they raised problems on a number of points. The innovative feature of Scaliger’s approach was his use of external resources such as astronomical calculations of solar years and above all non-biblical sources to resolve inconsistencies.
However,
According to one of the non-Christian histories studied by Scaliger, the Tomoi by the Egyptian priest Manetho (third century BC), which he regarded as authentic and very reliable, the dynasties of the pharaohs went back centuries before the date on which Scaliger had determined the completion of the Creation (25 October 3950 BC). Were there people before Adam? Scaliger wisely left the explosive implications of his discovery untouched, but his emphasis on the equiponderance of biblical and non-biblical histories was bound to have far-reaching consequences at points where they contradicted one another.
and
The Groningen historian Ubbo Emmius (1547–1625) stated that the dynasties of the pharaohs preceded the Flood, though without mentioning Scaliger by name.239
Ted Davis: "nearly all Christians in the 17th century believed the Earth and the universe were created around 4000 BC."
  • Richard Landes, "Lest the Millennium be Fulfilled: Apocalyptic Expectations and the Pattern of Western Chronography" ("Hippolytus of Rome and Julius Africanus introduced the first well-documented Christian chronology (AM I), which placed the Incarnation 5500 years after the Creation." And "About 303 CE Eusebius argued, on the basis of massive archival work, that Jesus had begun his ministry 5228 years after the creation." Eusebius thereby rejuvenated the world by almost exactly three centuries, and dated his own time to c.5500 AM II.)
  • Vossius
  • McCarthy, “Bede's Primary Source for the Vulgate Chronology in His Chronicles in De Temporibus and De Temporum Ratione"
  • Hughes, Secrets of the Times: Myth and History in Biblical Chronology (Esp. "From P to Ussher")
  • Gerhard Larsson, The Secret System: A Study in the Chronology of the Old Testament
  • Grabbe, "Chronography in Hellenistic Jewish Historiography"
  • the volume Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronik
  • Adler, Time Immemorial: Archaic History and Its Sources in Christian Chronography from Julius Africanus to George Syncellus
Rest of post continued here (mainly bibliographical stuff)
submitted by koine_lingua to Christianity [link] [comments]


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